Through Washington Post, “Mihail Gorbachevs Brezhnev’s Manifesto”,

Through my examination, my research project will explore the communist culture within Eastern European countries during the late 20th century and the analysis of the de-Stalinization era throughout the Eastern Bloc. I have observed through my primary sources that involve: The Cult of Personality and its consequences, by Nikita Khrushchev, a newspaper article by the Washington Post, “Mihail Gorbachevs Brezhnev’s Manifesto”, by John Lewis Gaddis. These documents function in synchronization to emphasize the actions these sources endured, beginning with the perception of notion by Nikita Krushchev, and through the illustrations from a global perspective of newspapers journals within the United States.
My proposition is that the Soviet policies had crucial influence in Eastern Europe transformation after World War II. This is in part to the parties control and strong censorship over the region. As historical documents reveal the establishments of communist regimes from country to country and how it led to a devastating outcome for most of the Eastern European states under the communist control. The following of events can be perceived through examination of historical archives that unravel the interlocking regions behind the Eastern bloc. Bring the comprehension of the historical significance to the Soviet Union and the function to their foundation of communist authority in Eastern Europe following World War II.
The launch of the system of the Eastern Bloc had surrounded numerous ideas and theories by Soviet Union’s perception and Eastern Europeans. These suggestions and ideas to the questioning motive and comprehension of the communist inclination have only impacted numerous historians to many questions and thought. The iron curtain had cut off the Western culture and to historians that approach that strive to comprehend the Soviets empowerment within Eastern Europe.
         These restrictions have been looked over and have adapted to understand the Soviets ways and motives in Eastern Europe can be correlated and stretched as an outcome of years of examination in the freshly obtainable sources. This research is intended to supply most interpretations of archives that offer the observation of the crucial tools reflecting to Soviet policies in Eastern Europe. This provides Stalin’s formulations during the end of the war to demolish the soviet bloc’s cultures. These sources and documents project the crucial characters of the decline within the Eastern region. The process towards the fall of communism had sprouted within a gradual thaw in the years before. As censorship and legitimacy began to lose grip by the Soviet Union, it had influenced many civilians within the Eastern bloc to revolt against Soviet policies.  
  The transformation of the Soviet system is similar by the Eastern Europeans countries command. There are great documents that are equivalent between Yugoslavs and Soviets, and great examples of the systematic influences of the Stalin-Tito split. The essential segment portrayed by the soviets in the plan of the show trials in Romania’s, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, is correlated by their daily participation in the confirmed prosecutions, sentences, and executions. Through the documents and archives that have been depicted on the social coercions that brought de-Stalinization through East European leaders, forming the political catastrophe that created the revolts throughout Eastern Europe; the Polish October, German uprising of June 1953, and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.   
As a result of these events and further Soviet structures, the head of Eastern Europe was as a consequence of these and other Soviet policies; the view of Eastern Europe was immensely transformed following World War II. Documents further portray the soviet influence, manipulation, and jurisdiction that depict Soviets impact of power and manipulation were the foundation of the formation of communist were at the heart of the creation of communist government within Eastern Europe. This paper will explore and analyze the period and cause to why Soviet communist policies within the Eastern bloc had collapsed.
My analysis through a political historical perspective has influenced me to explore the central ideology of communist functions, precisely in consideration to recognition of the influence it had over the Eastern bloc by its agents that hid behind Easter European communist leaders, policies, and how different countries reacted to the spread of communist ways. Through a variety of illustrations, that highlights different factors and motives to what the soviets and the communist ideology was trying to follow after World War II. The soviets command of manipulation, repression, and isolation had not just spread but had Eastern Europe but had clamped down on whatever could be detained and controlled. These secondary sources have provided understanding and thought to Soviet policies over Eastern Europe and the cause and effects had on the countries within the region that brought different viewpoints of methodology, theories, and arguments to the subject.
The idea of socialism had been heavily convincing to blocking westernization from spreading east, as many strive for socialism, the Soviet Union had their own kind of socialism and ways to expanding their regions of world communism. The soviets approach to modernization and powerful utopian society had inclined to the control of individuals within society that censored the expression in what they felt. The soviets overbearing power for the need of control and their policies for economic and social transformation had created guilt and fear for many citizens within the Eastern Bloc. The following historians that I have used for my secondary sources indicate key factors to the Soviets expansion of world communism that had influenced a command economy, people’s democracy, and socialist culture throughout Eastern Europe.  
I first will begin by discussing my analysis on The Red Flag: A history of Communism by David Priestland that discusses communism over the century through different leaders and examines the approach it had on multiple societies. He follows communism in four main factors in history and underlines the expansion of the Soviet Union into the east following World War II. Priestland highlights communism during the cold war era and how the soviets used extreme oppression for social and economic reforms. He further explains the context on the emergence of communism, stating “War, sharp international competition and the emergence of modern nation states were important. Therefore require an approach that understands both the power of utopian ideas and the violent and stratified world in which the communist lived.”(Priestland, XXI). The idea’s that co
Priestland’s illustration promotes my vital subject of analysis for the fact that it depicts the motive behind the iron curtain and what communism was aiming to do. Moreover, Priestland further extends on the society during the decline of communist policies under Khrushchev, “The communist party was clearly not going to entice the people and drive them to work harder. It was no longer the messianic organization of the late 1920’s, and the declaration of class peace at home and abroad ensured it was even more difficult to engage in popular enthusiasm” (Priestland, 350). This informed the outlook of citizens and the soviets loss of legitimacy.
Furthermore, The Yugoslav Experiment by Dennison Rusinow analyzes the challenges and catastrophe that Yugoslavia went through from 1948 through 1976. Rusinow applies how the Soviet occupied territory following World War II had shattered a culture and transformed a smaller scale country into a soviet machine. Rusinow describes the culture clash within the Soviet expansion over Yugoslavia stating that, “an epic national liberation struggle, an inter-ethnic civil war and a social revolution there arose the phoenix of a new Yugoslavia, wearing the red star” (Rusinow, xvii). The desertification of economic and political reforms to Yugoslavia had begun sprouting through after the death Stalin, as Rusinow states that, “profound criticism of the soviet system, a criticism which strengthened with new argument the concept that the revolution could be saved only by undoing ‘estatism’ and realizing “socialist democracy” (Rusinow, 61).
Rusinow’s book paved the way to understanding the growth of the civilians under the Eastern Bloc and how they began to revolt for liberalization, however the function to this happening was by the period after Stalin’s death that influenced a ‘thaw’ of uprises that sprang across the Eastern Europe and wanted to become a more democratic nation without the soviet union. This secondary source provided significant insight to the economic reforms and culture breakage within the country of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia experiment had showed the complications and devastation to what soviet polices had entailed to the society and how it declined accordingly to the revolt of the people and dissatisfaction of communism and what it had promised.
However, The Rise and fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Policy, by Mathew J. Ouimet had distinguished the Gorbachev era and how his reforms were exact to reform Eastern Europe political and economic system. His reforms had forcefully brought their own socialism with Soviet military to the popular fronts, which was their way of bring countries like Czechoslovakia to the soviet sphere. Ouimet discusses that, “the attempts to reconsider the party’s vanguard role in society, the use of state organs, and the prospect of multiparty politics outraged the Kremlin moderates such as Brezhnev” (Ouimet, 83). The soviet troops that came into power over Czechoslovakia had used this action to control and censor any Western influence into the Soviet regime. The Czechs had been the strongest country within the Eastern European region and the Soviet leaders were concern with their system because it could spread western thought throughout the Eastern bloc.
This segment of my project, I will apply my primary sources to scrutinize the triggering effects for the de-Stalinization era. The cult of personalities and other consequences by Nikita Khrushchev that revealed the reality to The Stalinization and the secrets of communism made at the 20th congress of the communist party of the Soviet Union on February 25, 1956. Khrushchev speech launched the truth to the cruel and wicked system that the communist party had condemned. Khrushchev revealed the ‘Gulap’ camps that kept political prisoners that were considered by Stalin ‘enemies of the people’. Khrushchev states, “Instead of proving his political correctness and mobilizing the masses, he often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation, not only against actual enemies, but also against individuals who had not committed any crimes against the party and the Soviet Government” (Khrushchev, 1956). Khrushchev revealed the true nature of Stalin’s wickedness. This had opened the eyes to the public and their change of thought towards the communist parties’ power and control throughout the Soviet Union.
Khrushchev had denounced Stalin after his death,  revealing Stalin’s cruel actions during the great purge and overall Stalinism he states that, “It was determined that of the 139 members and candidates of the party’s Central Committee who were elected at the 17th congress, 98 persons, that is, 70 percent, were arrested and shot (mostly in 1937-38)” (Khrushchev, 1956). This speech had consequently had frighten the Soviet Union however it struck communist allies even more, specifically in western Europe. This released pressure that transformed the way of history. However, during this period, the influence on politicians and soviet supporters was dramatic. Soviet sources have explained that many shuddered as they heard the truth about Stalin from Khrushchev speech, having heart attacks and drove to suicide. This speech had influenced the communist leaders within the Eastern bloc to uncertainty of the stability of the Soviet policies.
The speech opened the world’s eyes to underlining truth of Stalinism and how the soviets controlled and manipulated their ideology. Khrushchev illustrates that “Instead of proving his political correctness and mobilizing the masses, he often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation”… Stalin had projected fear and paranoia for civilians throughout the Soviet bloc and the overall U.S.S.R. The only way of expression was that of communist ideology. Khrushchev further states that, “not only against actual enemies, but also against individuals who had not committed any crimes against the Party and the Soviet government” (Khrushchev, 1956). This document had marked the end of Stalin’s reputation and the overall Soviets legitimacy within the Eastern bloc and global allies.
The reality of these victims were that, “Soviet and economic activists who were branded in 1937-1938 as enemies were actually never enemies, spies, wreckers, etc., but were always honest Communists” (Khrushchev, 1956). The speech highlighted the predicament of communist victims in the Soviet Union who were the issue to cruelty, discrimination, and abuse provoked by Stalin. Stalinist culture inclined throughout the Soviet Union, for example, Khrushchev explains that “Eike was forced under torture to sign ahead of time a protocol of his confession prepared by the investigative judge, in which he and several other eminent Party workers were accused of anti-Soviet activity” (Khrushchev, 1956).  This document had increasingly forced allied states to see the truth of Stalin and the NKVD discrimination and violence towards innocent communist members, this extended and justified to the Soviets as antagonist, discriminatory, and there actions to abuse innocent members, which further proceeds the Soviets motive to oppression to have power of their communist ideology. 
Furthermore, the following illustration of this paper will discuss the primary documents of 1989 newspaper article, Mikhail’s Gorbachev’s Manifesto by the Washington Post. The document is an unraveling factor to the fall of communism and the disintegration of Soviets policies. The article discusses Gorbachev’s new policies over the Soviet Union and how the policies seem to contradict the reason why the U.S.S.R was formed and the overall Soviet communist ideology. This source marks the dramatic switch within the Soviet systems policies and ideas to what they want their future to be. The Gorbachev’s ideas had been a new thought for civilians and the world. From the start of the Soviet Union it had planted the crucial idea of breaking away from capitalism and becoming a more socialist society however Gorbachevs new policies on politics and especially economic functions had approached a more capitalist thought. This event had marked the official divide of Stalinization.
   The new perestroika policy that means ‘restructuring’ had been discussed in Mihkail Gorbechevs book that provides the Soviet Union’s plans for the future and their idea of breaking away from ‘containment’. Stating that “Nuclear weapons, Gorbachev insists, have placed inescapable constraints on the feasibility of class struggle”, the article further explains that “peaceful coexistence must now be separated- as Brezhnev was unwilling to do-from the ultimate determination of one class to prevail over the other” (Washington Post, 1987). This had been a start of a new political and economic movement for reformation of the U.S.S.R. towards a more capitalist function. Gorbachev had approached and put forth confident effort with this new policy and the effects it will lad for the Soviet Union’s future and breakage from restraining into an international system. 
The article further discusses Gorbachevs policy of Glasnost that depicted the idea of openness over the Soviet Union and how historians view this as a misconnection of the Soviet Union past. “The difficulty of reconciling democratic principles with what Gorbachev acknowledges will continue to be the absence of an official opposition” (Washington Post, 1987). The society and less censorship over the Soviet system and provided people within the Soviet system to break away socialist realism and discuss the expression that feel is best for their region. The Eastern European states had taken this policy to rise and revolt against the Soviet Union and express their disappointment to the communist party.
      In conclusion, Socialist realist regulations and hard censorships had been crucial tools that were provoked as the essential function for the Soviets sphere of influence. Beginning with experiences in which Eastern European states undergone within the Soviets policies and how over the years communism failed to function in the society. Then, specific effects on Yugoslavia and how the economic and clash of cultures had declined the Yugoslav state. The Eastern Bloc regime was specifically disappointed by the legal system of the soviet policy and how many soviet communist groups started to become concerned worldwide socialism and the key factors of the Soviet Union’s system. 
      Through historical secondary sources of historical literature and monographs of the The Yugoslav Experiment by Dennison Rusinow, The Red Flag: A History of communism by David Priestland, and The Rise and fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Policy by Mathew J. Ouimet had depicted different viewpoints and approaches that the Soviets had spread and controlled within different countries of the Soviet bloc. I chose to use historical preference in different periods of events to understand the greater historical emphasis on the gradual decline of Stalinist communist culture and how it eventually led to the overall fall of the Soviet Union. The paper analyzed a period of approach of a new socialist society throughout the Eastern Europe region and how these new ideas of socialism in a political and economic aspect could not function with the different cultures and economic circumstance.
     The primary sources are different time frames that mark the cause and reasoning to the Soviet control and why it did not succeed within society. The Cult of Personality and its consequences by Nikita Krushchev had revealed the events that the Soviet society had undergone and to why the world should be cautious to the Soviet system. The newspaper article Mikhail Gorbachevs Brezhnev’s had marked the Soviet Union’s fall of communism and change to a more capalist approach.  The sources have brought the understanding to what the Soviets motive to conquering Eastern European regions which was to block any capitalist idea from spreading within the eastern hemisphere. The fear had brought great paranoia and anxiety within communist leaders and eventually onto the society that had been conquered by the Soviet regime.  
     These sources have opened my perception to view specially the mark when Soviets had officially lost legitimacy and control over the Eastern bloc. My analysis on historical secondary sources and primary sources had determined that de-Stalinization and the fall of communism within the Eastern bloc and the overall Soviet Union was not just one overall event but a gradual ‘thaw’ as historians have stated to be the end of Soviet communist ideas. The analytical research that this paper presents has corresponded with many historical ideas and assumptions to this period and has provided additional contest to the cause and effect of the failure of Soviet communism throughout Europe.