The insanity defense being something I have widely seen on one of my favorite television shows (Law and Order), my research paper will be on the insanity defense and the four tests used for determining legal insanity. My research paper will thoroughly define the insanity defense and examine the four tests used for determining legal insanity. I will show why the insanity defense is not commonly used and/or not effective, I will also explain the four tests used for determining legal insanity to aid my paper. The four tests used for determining legal insanity being; M’Naghten Rule, the Irresistible Impulse test, the Durham Rule, and the Model Penal Code test. My research will mainly be gathering information on the insanity defense cases in the state of Maryland, the paper will also have some information on the insanity defense caes from other states comparative means. Annotated Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Goldstein, A. S. (1967). The Insanity Defense. New Haven: Yale University Press. Goldstein’s “The Insanity Defense” discusses the insanity defense being the most popularly discussed issue in criminal law. Goldstein examines the tests for determining legal insanity and comparatively considers the new test that could be used to determine legal insanity. The book really takes the time to examine the insanity defense throughout the whole trial process, asking questions about what when a defendant is using the insanity defense is allowed during the trial and so on. Goldstein shows how everyday people see the insanity defense to escape the consequences of their action, but he further explains how it the insanity defense may be worse than the sentence one may get for a crime when pleading guilty or found guilty by a jury of peers; going to say the indefinite commitment to a mental health institution makes the insanity defense less attractive to defendants. Grisso, T. (2006). Evaluating Competencies: Forensic Assessments and Instruments. Berlin : Springer Science & Business Media. “Evaluating Competencies: Forensic Assessments and Instruments” by Thomas Grisso provides a conceptual model for understanding the insanity defense and the test for how it is legally determined. The serves as a guild on deeply understanding how to determine insanity as defined in criminal law. The book also serves as a guild lines on how research may be obtained on the topic which would aid the further evaluation of the insanity defense and how it can be tested. Grisso also reviews 37 specialized forensic assessment instruments used for determining legal insanity. Keedy, E. R. (1910). Tests of Criminal Responsibility of the Insane. Chicago: Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law. White, M. D. (2017). The Insanity Defense: Multidisciplinary Views on its History, Trends, and Controversies. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.