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Bicchi et al 1 has discussed the possibility of surrogating detailed tactile information for softness
discrimination, with information on the rate of spread of the contact area between the finger and
the specimen as the contact force increases. Devices for implementing such a perceptual channel11
are described, and a practical application to a mini-invasive surgery tool is presented.
Psychophysical test results are reported, validating the effectiveness and practicality of the
proposed approach.
Birglen et al 2 has presented a new type of haptic device using spherical geometry. The basic
idea of this haptic device was to provide users with feedback information on the motion and/or
force that has been generated by the sensing device.
Vlachos et al 3 presented the design and implementation work of a force feedback haptic
mechanism with active degrees of freedom (DoF), which has been used as part of a training
simulator for urological operations. That mechanism consists of a 2-DOF, 5-bar linkage, and a 3-
DOF spherical joint, designed to present low friction, inertia and mass, and to be statically
balanced. The device is suitable for the accurate application of small forces and moments. All five
actuators of the haptic device are base-mounted dc motors and uses a force transmission system
based on capstan drives, pulleys, and tendons. The paper describes the overall design and sizing
considerations, the resulting kinematics and dynamics, the force feedback control algorithm, and
the hardware employed.
Katsura and ohnishi 4 has described a haptic training system based on multilateral control. The
law of action and reaction is attained by three robots. Bilateral control is extended, and multilateral
control is introduced. Multilateral control is designed similarly as bilateral control based on modal
decomposition, force is controlled in the common mode, and position is controlled in the
differential mode. The scaling factors of position and force are set independently which makes itpossible to change a trainer’s assistant force according to a trainee’s skill level. The proposed
training system was based on multilateral control will act as a fundamental technology for the
evolution of haptic devices.
Christopher et al 5 has suggested that force feedback reduces applied forces for both subject
groups, but only the surgically trained group can take advantage of this benefit without a significant
increase in trial time. This paper hypothesized that this training difference is due to the interaction
between visual-spatial motor abilities and the information contained in the mechanical interaction
forces.
Tholey and Desai 6 has presented the design and development of 7 DoF haptic device. In
addition, a kinematic and workspace analysis of the device has been completed to compute the
position of the slave robot and end-effector tool. Friction estimation has been presented to enable
a high transparency of the haptic device. Finally, a simulation of needle insertion into soft tissue
was developed to test the device.
Punagmali et al 7 has presented the state-of-the-art in future and tactile sensing technologies
applied in minimally invasive surgery. Several sensing strategies including displacement-based,
current-based, pressure-based, resistive-based, capacitive-based, piezoresistive-based, vibrationbased, and optical-based sensing has also been discussed.

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