Abstract — In recent years
information technology has grown very rapidly. In the context of GIS, free/open
source concept and three-dimensional implementation have also increasingly
developed in recent years. The usage of these types of softwares is rapidly
growing, so this paper describes the wide range of applications of GIS. It
describes the major characteristics of GIS, as well as the reasons for the
application of GIS in the analysis, modelling and display characteristics. The
paper mentions some issues considering the application of geoinformation
technologies in mapping and managing of forest inventory, flood protection,
tourism and urban planning.
Klju?ne re?i —application,
components, GIS, maps
eoinformation technologies are a
new group of tools, methods, instruments and systems developed in recent decade
to improve acquisition, processing, display and use of geoinformation. Examples
of such tools are GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, GIS (Geographical
Information System) tools, algorithms for spatial data modelling, remote
sensing techniques, geostatistical tools etc 1.
Geographical information system
(GIS) technologies have been widely applied at all scientific fields and
practical activities 2-3.
GIS can be implemented as a comprehensive,
multipurpose system (e.g. GRASS, ArcGIS), as a specialized, application
oriented tool (e.g. GeoServer), or as a subsystem of a larger software package
supporting handling of geospatial data needed in its applications (e.g.
hydrologic modelling system, geostatistical analysis software, or a real estate
services Web site). The multipurpose systems are often built from smaller
components or modules which can be used independently in application oriented
systems 4. According to 5, GIS represents a set of related objects and
activities that serve with their mutual relations the general purpose which is
decision making of spatial activities. This system
based on computer technology that enables archiving and manipulation of spatial
data, is designed to provide answers and establish relationships between
different data and enables us to
make the right decision faster and safer.
Also, GIS is
very useful in marketing research,
in geology and construction, as well as in all other
areas using maps-related data.
II. MAIN GIS COMPONENTS
established on the basis of certain principles, of which the most important
principle is integration, and this is the most important ability of GIS. There
are not other system that can integrate, ie unify, spatial and non-spatial information in this
way. Then, there is the principle of availability. The principle of data
editing is achieved by the perfect combination of hardware components,
software, experts and excellent database. Then, the principle of terminology
and language definitions, which means that the GIS language has a formalized
character defined by ISO standards. The last, but not less important, is the
principle of visualization, so that the data is clearly displayed and
understood by their users.
can be divided into five components: people, data, hardware, software, and
methods (procedures), as showed in Figure 1. All of these components need to be
in balance for the system to be successful. No one part can run without the
other URL 1.
Figure 1. GIS components
Human resources represent the core of GIS, and make It function as a
coherent whole, by correcting the disadvantages of this system.
Spatial data is
a set of attributes (qualitative, quantitative, descriptive …) that explain
or define an element of GIS (object, event, activity …) Information is a
specific form of data editing in a form suitable for analysis, development and
decision making. Information systems transform data into information. Data in
GIS are organized from a human-oriented to computer-oriented: real world ? conceptual
model ? physical model ? logical model, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. GIS data
the speed of the process, the way the system is formed, and the format of the
not only include actual GIS software, but also various database software,
drawing software, statistical software, software for analysis and photo
Processes with different analyzes require
well-coordinated methods to produce correct and required data.
III. GIS IN FOREST INVENTORY
GIS has shown as a
good practice for forest management because it provides people with
informations that help better planning and making good development decisions. By
creating maps in GIS tools it is possible to detect forest location, relations
with the nearby places, and to find out what spatial patterns exist. Moreover,
by surveying forest during longer period of time and creating maps, creation of
overall difference map can be obtained. This map actually contains informations
about changes that happened during time of interest. The Forest Atlas is a
dynamic tool that helps decision makers in the region to achieve sustainable
management of forest resources through strengthened land use planning and
monitoring. Through a combination of interactive mapping applications, posters
and analytical reports the Atlases provide users with timely, accurate, and
synchronized information about land use allocation within national forest
estates. With forest management becoming increasingly complex, due to greater
environmental and social involvement and pressures, GIS is likely to play an
increasingly central role 6. Application of GIS in forest
inventory is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. GIS in
forest inventory 6
IV. GIS IN FLOOD PROTECTION
Most of the human casualties
in the last few decades have been caused by floods. In addition, material
damages that result from this natural disaster reach great intensities. This is
due to climate change, urbanization and other natural and anthropogenic
factors. It is precisely here that GIS systems play an important role in the
analysis and forecasting of potential risks from the occurrence of floods, as
well as their mapping and analysis of vulnerable areas. It is important to
create a system that will provide early warning and allow evacuation of the
population before the flood waters reach the houses. Flood risk mapping
involves hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, damage and risk calculations, and
mapping of the floodplain. The predicted water levels and floods for the next 24 and 48 hours can
be displayed via dynamic web pages, and overlaid with maps of the
transportation network, property boundaries, municipal infrastructure and water
depth contour lines. This combination of technology and software can provide
good flood prediction precision and strong support to the public evacuation if
flood events happen. The basic inputs for automated floodplain delineation are
the DTM and the water levels at the cross sections obtained from the water
gauges. The floodplain depth datasets are generated by computing the elevation
difference between the water surface TIN and the ground surface DTM data. Based
on flood depth data, the floodplain extent and flood depth contour maps can be
generated. The Web-GIS interface is designed to calculate and display the
spatial extent of predicted flood plain (see Figure 4), enabling the
visualization of the transportation network, property boundaries, municipal
infrastructure, flood polygons and water depth contour lines 7.
Figure 4. Flood risk
V. GIS IN TOURISM
Both tourism and
IT increasingly provide strategic opportunities and powerful tools for economic
growth, redistribution of wealth and development of equity around the globe.
GIS technology offers great opportunities for the development of modern tourism
applications using maps. This technology integrates common database operations
such as query with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits
offered by maps. GIS is used for bringing the georeferenced data (spatial and
non-spatial) of geographic location Zlatibor and Zlatar into digital maps. Each
object is assigned to a thematic layer. Each layer combines related objects
like roads, building, protected areas or watercourses (Figure 5). GIS can be
used in three types of applications such as inventory, analysis and evaluation
of plan based on tourism development 8.
Figure 5. Maps with hotels at Zlatibor and
Zlatar, tourist areas and main attractions 8
VI. GIS IN URBAN PLANNING
Urban planning involves many functions, scales, sectors, and
stages. In general, the functions of urban planning can be classified into
general administration, development control, plan making, and strategic
planning. Different functions, scales, sectors, and stages of urban planning
make different uses of GIS. GIS
tools are very important when considering making decision support systems for
urban development, urban planning and usage ways of this areas, as well as
making optimal solutions in terms of traffic regulation, public transport and
construction of various catering facilities. By using the GIS tool, you can create
maps that graphically display current data of interest about an urban surface.
Based on the interpretation of these maps, planners and architects can make a
decision where is the most rational to build facility, or how to regulate the
green areas of the city or how to optimally manage traffic based on the
analysis of the busiest parts of urban areas at different times of the day. GIS
can also be used to model different development scenarios (Figure 6). It can
show the modelling results in graphic form, making them easy to communicate
with the decision-makers 9.
Figure 6. Graphical plan of
urban green space development of Nanchang 10
Most people think GIS is
only about “making maps”. But governments, businesses and people harness the
power of GIS because of the insights of spatial analysis. Before GIS,
cartographers mapped out the land using paper maps. Over the years, people have
witnessed a gradual shift away from paper maps. Instead, users build digital
maps with computer-based spatial data.
Some of the largest problems
of our planet are best understood spatially. For example, climate change,
natural disasters and population dynamics are all geographic in nature. So, how
to solve such problems in GIS? The answer is through spatial analysis which
understands relationships between spatial and attribute data.
GIS is very important tool
when it comes to natural hazards management and development planning. They can
improve the quality and power of analysis of natural hazard assessments, guide
development activities, and assist planners in the selection of mitigation
measures and in the implementation of emergency preparedness and response
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URL 1 https://www.jmu.edu/cisr/research/sic/topics.htm
URL 2 http://www.rst2.org/ties/GENTOOLS/comp_gis.html
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