STAND due to industrialization, automation, modern life

STAND ALONE HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM

(smart home automation)

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S.Gomathy ME.,MBA.,    
Electrical
and Electronics Engineering            

Kongu
Engineering College   
[email protected]                                                                    

V.Gokul
Electrical
and Electronics Engineering                  

Kongu
Engineering College
[email protected]

K.Hari
Electrical
and Electronics Engineering                  

Kongu
Engineering College
[email protected]

G.Vijayendhiran     
Electrical
and Electronics Engineering        
Kongu
Engineering College  
[email protected]                           

Abstract—Increasing energy demand and limitations of
fossil fuels, time to use the renewable resources for energy generation in
domestic area. Renewable energy will not run out ever. Other sources of energy
are finite and will someday be depleted. Renewable energy offers so many
benefits, from cleaning the air and reducing the pollution, to lowering prices
and taking us off the destructive boom-and-bust merry-go-round of fossil fuel
prices .Energy consumption increases day by day as more appliances used in
today’s home. This paper proposes a design and development  of a prototype based on solar powered  solar power home automation system and
control through Raspberry Pi and to establish a platform that allows
communication between the web-enabled mobile application of the user and the
raspberry Pi situated at a remote location anywhere in the world. In this
system, it has two main sections : Energy generation and  energy consumption. Energy generation is
generated by using solar energy and utilized by different loads  available in the home .With the intermittent  nature of solar energy, the generated power
is used to meet the demand of the user at all weather conditions without
relying on grid. Thus, this project proposes an efficient solar powered home
automation system where the generated power is controlled and monitored by user
to their power demand

 

Keywords—PV panel, Charge controller, Web
Server, Raspberry Pi, Battery.

 

                       Introduction (Renewable energy)

          Now a days  Carbon emission of  the planet earth has   been increased in a large extent due to
industrialization, automation, modern life of the people. Use of non-renewable
energy sources is very much dependent for it, which has given rise to global
warming due to depletion of ozone layer. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally
replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, tides, waves, and geothermal heat1. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important
areas: electricity generation, air
and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy       services. According to CEA ,the all  over India installed Capacity as on 31.10.2017
are as follows :

The total energy capacity from  all over 
India  331117.58MW

.In thermal power plant would produced an amount of energy
which would be equal to 219414.51 MW. And then the energy from Nuclear  power plant 6780 MW . In hydro power plant 
produced an amount of energy which would be equal to  44675.462 MW .The
second largest electric source is renewable energy.In a energy obtain  from Renewable Energy Source that would be
equal to  60157.66 MW.

I.    
Grid
Connection

1.     Grid System

             Grid-tied or grid connected solar
is a solar electricity system without batteries. Both the national grid power
smart solar electricity system are hooked up to the house so that it always
have electricity available at flick of the switch, even at night, or if it is
cloudy. A solar electricity system of any size can be installed in the roof of
any residential building and  will only
ever be billed if the power consumption is in excess of the generated amount.  The electricity grid acts as a 100% efficient
and maintenance free battery while also providing unlimited ‘on demand’ energy.
This is what makes grid connected solar electricity so attractive. It has all
the benefits of being attached to the electricity grid but with a portion of  electricity bill never increasing in price.

2.     Off -grid
system

                Off-grid
connected solar is a solar electricity system with battery backup. During the
day the sun shines and charges the batteries as well as supplies power to home.
During the evening or on rainy days when the sun isn’t shining use the power
stored in the batteries. when  house is
not connected to the national grid hence the name  off-grid.

                An off-grid solar system
(off-the-grid, standalone) is the obvious alternative to one that is grid-tied.
To ensure access to electricity at all times, off-grid solar systems require
battery storage and a backup generator (if you live off-the-grid).

                The  advantage of 
Off – grid  (stand alone ) systems
are used to increase in reliability and that
would be decreased in power reserved capacity. Then   the rating of voltage and frequency level to
be constant.

                The application of  Off- grid 
systems are that would grant no access to the utility grid and this
system became a self sufficient.

 

3.HOME AUTUMATION
SYSTEM

      

           There are a wide variety of
technology platforms, or protocols, on which a smart home can be built5. Home automation is being implemented
into more and more homes of older adults and people with disabilities in order
to maintain their independence and safety. These smart homes allow older adults
and people with disabilities to stay in their homes where they feel
comfortable, instead of moving to a costly health care facility. The transition
to a health care facility can cause a lot of anxiety and home automation can
either prevent or delay this anxiety.

        
When, now a
days, automation plays a crucial role in all work places and living homes.
Presently automation techniques are implemented either using microcontroller or
computer. The Raspberry Pi is a single board computer and it can be used to
overcome these problems. Using these ports, we can control the appliances with
the sensors as well as interface the camera for surveillance. Energy consumption increases day by day as more appliances
used in today’s home. Increasing energy demand and limitations of fossil fuels,
time to use the renewable resources for energy generation in domestic area

 

 

4.PROPOSEDSYSTEM

 

            This main
objective of this paper is to ease the effort of the people in rural areas
where they can control the electrical and electronic devices using their own
commands instead of using a remote control unit which they have to carry every
time to control the devices.

           In recent years, wireless
technologies have become very popular in both home and commercial networking
applications

  

         
Example: webpage

 

Figure 1. Block Diagram

The photovoltaic
solar cell performance may be thus considered by an equivalent electric circuit
model containing a diode.

 

PV panel Equations:                                                                                             

 

Id – current
through diode, A

                           

I sc –
short circuit current, A   

                          

voc –
open circuit voltage, V 

   

 

Figure
2.Simplified equivalent
circuit of photovoltaic cell

            Charge
Controller  prevents overcharging and may
protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety
risk. Charge controllers stop charging a battery when they exceed a set high
voltage level, and re-enable charging when battery voltage drops back below that
level. Current sensor is
a device that detects and converts current to
an easily measured output voltage, which is proportional to the current through the measured path.A voltage sensor can in fact determine, monitor and can
measure the supply of voltage. It
can measure AC level or/and DC voltage level. The input to the voltage sensor
is the voltage itself and the output can be analog voltage signals, switches,
audible signals, analog current level, frequency or even frequency modulated
outputs

A Boost converter is a switch
mode DC to DC converter in which the output voltage is greater than the input
voltage7. It is also called as step up converter. The name step up converter
comes from the fact that analogous to step up transformer the input voltage is
stepped up to a level greater than the input voltage. By law of conservation of
energy the input power has to be equal to output power (assuming no losses in
the circuit).

 

Boost
converter are used in regulated DC power supplies and regenerative braking of
DC motors. Low power boost converters are
used in portable device applications. Boost converters are used in
battery powered applications where there is space constraint to stack more
number of batteries in series to achieve higher voltage..An actuator is a motor that converts energy into torque which
then moves or controls a mechanism or a system into which it has been
incorporated. It can introduce motion as well as prevent it.

 

S.No

    
HARDWARE

SPECIFICATION

1

PV PANEL

Ø 
Each panel Power-75W
Ø 
Voltage
rating -12V
Ø 
Current
rating -7A
 

2

BOOST CONVERTER

Ø 
  Power-2200w
Ø 
Voltage
rating -12V
Ø 
Current
rating -8A
 

3

CHARGE CONROLLER

Ø 
Voltage
rating -150 V

4

8 CHANNEL RELAY

Ø  This is a 5V
8-Channel Relay

5

RASHBERRY PI

Ø 
Broadcom BCM2837 64bit ARMv7 Quad Core
Processor powered Single Board Computer running at 1.2GHz
Ø 
1GB RAM
Ø 
BCM43143 Wi-Fi on board
Ø  Bluetooth
Low Energy (BLE) on board

6

Current Sensor

      ACS712

 

 

 

 

Figure 3.  Flow chart

                                                

 

                                                                                              

Figure 4. Hardware Setup

 

5.WORKING

              In our project we have aimed at
electrifying the home appliances through solar energy alone. The generated
energy using solar power is fed to the load directly. The home appliances can
be operated at the farther distance through wireless communication, thereby
saving the time and the work can be performed even in our absence at home.

 

 

               

Figure 5.1 Experimental setup

 

To
implement our idea we have selected washing machine and LED as a basic load.
Battery is charged during morning and can be utilized at night even at morning
when the power production by panel is insufficient during cloudy weather. Power
produced in panel and power utilized by load is monitored by controller through
voltage and current sensor and intimate to the user through wireless/PC. Charge
controller used to charge the battery at reliable condition. Boost convert step
up the DC power to required voltage to loads as we are using DC loads only.
Actuator turns ON the appliance when it get signal by controller. Our project
is completely independent of grid i.e., off gird

 

6.WEBPAGE

A web page is a document that is suitable for the
World Wide Web and web browsers. A web browser displays a web page on
a monitor or mobile device. That is what displays, but the term also
refers to a computer file, usually written in HTML or comparable mark-up
language. The primary function of a web server is to store, process and
deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and
server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Pages
delivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in
addition to text content6. A user agent,
commonly a web browser or web crawler,
initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using
HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. The
resource is typically a real file on the server’s secondary
storage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how the
web server is implemented. While the primary function is to
serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receiving
content from clients. This feature is used for submitting web forms,
including uploading of
files.  Many generic web servers also
support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP, or other scripting languages2,3. This means that the
behavior of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual
server software remains unchanged. Usually, this function is used to generate
HTML documents dynamically (“on-the-fly”) as
opposed to returning static
documents. The former is primarily used for retrieving or modifying
information from databases. The latter is typically much faster and more
easily cached but
cannot deliver dynamic content. Web servers are not only used
for serving the World Wide Web. They can also be found embedded in
devices  such as printers, routers, webcams and
serving only a local network. The web server may then be used
as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question.
This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on the
client computer; since only a web browser is required (which now is included
with most operating systems).

 

Figure 6.1 Web Page

 

IP Address
192.168.2.10.This IP is used to control the appliance via web server (Figure
4.8). It controls ON and OFF of the load according to command from the user. The
Home Server connects user to hardware via webpage i.e., router via raspberry
pi. Home server commands router via Raspberry pi to control loads4. Router
receive signal and run accordingly to carry out specific operations. And this
information like ON/OFF condition of load and power available can be monitors
and control through their mobile phone using WESERVER

 

        

 

                   Figure
6.2  Status of Home Appliances

 

  7. Experimental
Result

              The below output data was obtained
(Table 4.1) on 23 October 2017 evening 4.45PM and a LED was electrified using
solar power. Thus we can connect various load depend on power generated in the
solar panel.              

             Figure 7.1 PV panel output voltage

 

         

Figure 7.2 PV panel output current

 

            

Figure 7.3 Boost converter output

       

 

COMPONENTS

OUTPUT

VOLTAGE IN  V

CUTTENT IN A

PV panel

17.76

5.8

Boost converter

24.19

5.51

LED

Glows 100Watts

 

FUTURE
SCOPE OF SOLAR POWERED HOME AUTOMATION
AND CONTROL

 

The system which we proposed   provides reliable automation system to the
user with the available power more effectively. It create will have great
impact in rural areas for effective use of generated power. It will easily
controlled through wireless even at far distance. It  would be a Independent of grid (off grid).
For further improvement in our project combined with weather forecasting, which
is very useful to user for schedule their work accordingly.

CONCLUSION

In
this project, our main focus was the development of an independent energy
generation system (stand alone) for smart homes to control renewable (solar)
energy and home automation makes this system more effective and controlling
home appliance according to the power available reduces the waste of solar
energy. Smart Home users use their mobile/laptop/tablet to access the home
appliances remotely, for that we have developed a web page to control and
monitor multiple domestic appliances andwe have been tested by LED and washing
machine, which is operated successfully. The facilities are affordable and even
domestic user can provide themselves a micro generation system in their own
homes and accordingly reduce natural gas/oil consumption by renewable energy
sources as sort of replacement energy. This project has given an example of
energy saving model for urban areas and lightening model for rural areas and
expected to reduce home energy uses. Finally, it is absolutely an affordable
system. It can be associated with various other options like energy monitoring
systems and weather monitoring system etc., soon

 

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