Semantic 21st century, so many limit of

                        Semantic is a
the study of purpose in language. Based on the Breal in the last 19th century,
as an appear science (Frenc,semantique?) defy to phonetics (“phonetique?) as a
sounds science : it’s same like 
Bloomfield in 1930, it was a encompassing fields, as one notes about
meaningful shapes, and the lexicon. Also seen more narrow, in a traditional
which persisted into 1960s, as a study of meaning in the lexicon alone.
Including changes in the pupose of word. Then, in accounts where the study of
distribution is separated from meaning, contrary to grammar in general, or in
grammar and especially in the generative grammar of the 1960s and beyond,
become syntax specially. Of current usage at the beginning of the 21st century,
so many limit of semantics to learn of meaning is abstraction from the context
in which the words and sentences are spoken: as the enemy, towards pragmatics.
Others include pragmatics as one of its branches. Another place, the scope in
practice is very narrow. So one handbook of “contemporary semantic theory”. In
the middle of 1990s almost only related to problems in formal semantics, even
the meaning of abandoned lexical units.semantics is study about how the
linguistic components bring the purpose. This is right at the crossroads
between language and cognition, that related with linguistic system to convey
the purpose and conceptional system that interprets it. To get language
semantics, a child must do three something : first, he must identify the
relevant linguistic items, second, he must identify (and understand) the
meaning of this relationship, and the third, he must learn how the form is
connected to meaning. Chomsky says that semantics is a very important
linguistic study, because an element of grammar is semantic. The semantic
component determines the meaning of the sentence, therefore, semantics is no
longer expressed as a peripheral object, but has been synchronized with the
field of morphology and syntax. Along with that also several theories about
meaning appeared. Since the emergence of the theory of the father of modern
linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure, on the linguistic signs that consist of
signifiers and signifiers. The invocation of linguistic studies should include
semantic studies, since both significant and significant elements are
inseparable (Chaer, 2003: 285). Meanwhile, pragmatics is a science that
examines the meaning communicated by the speaker (meaning of the speaker) and
translated by the listener / reader. As a result, pragmatics learns more about analyzing
the intention of the speaker than the vocabulary itself. Such studies should
include an interpretation of what the speaker means in a particular context,
and how that context affects the listener or reader of what is being said.
Therefore, it is important to consider who the other person is talking to,
where, when and in what situation. The pragmatic conclusion is the study of
contextual meaning (Yule, 1996: 3). From this definition, it is clear that
pragmatics examines the meaning of the unit of language. Now the semantic
questions arise and the study of the unit of language, in which the distinction
is between semantics and pragmatics. Although semantics and pragmatics examine
the meanings of the unity of language, semantics examines the internal meaning
of language, while pragmatically studying meaning externally in terms of
expressing the meaning of speakers.According
to Leech (in Deity, 1996: 10), there are several aspects that should be
considered in pragmatic studies. Those aspects are (1). The speakers and
speakers or writers and readers cover age, socioeconomic level, gender, level
of familiarity, etc. (2) The context of speech, in pragmatics, is the whole
background of knowledge understood together by the speakers in the opponent of
the word. (3) The purpose of speech, here various forms of expression can be
used to express the same intent or, otherwise, several purposes can be
expressed in the same discourse. (4) The type of speech in the pragmatic is an
oral act that occurs in certain situations, that is, depending on who the
speaker and his opponent say, as well as the time and place of his speech.So
relying on the interpretation of meaning in semantics and meaning in pragmatics
can cause many contradictions, so that two fields of linguistic experts emerged
that each have an argument about the concept of this meaning.Sakri
(1985: 5) explains that the linguistic aspects contained in the language, both
the source language and the target language, play a very important role in the
configuration of the translation work. Meanwhile, according to Udaya in Samiati
(1998: 3), linguistic aspects have a strategic role in translation. He gives an
example of grammar. Grammar is very important so that a translator can perform
activities to translate well. Without having a grammatical comprehension or
grammar with an interpreter, of course, it will be difficult to understand the
text and divert the meaning in the target language. Therefore, grammatical
adjustment is a practical theory.                    DISCUSSION In
fact, when it comes to linguistic aspects, grammatical adjustment is only an
example of linguistic aspects. Many other linguistic aspects that will help a
translator to do the job .. These aspects are phonology (including how to learn
the sounds of language and its meaning), morphology, syntax, semantics,
Prakmatik, Sociolinguistics, so even with Psycholinguistics (Udaya in Samiati
(1998: 4)).This
linguistic aspect can provide a firm basis for a linguist to be a good
translator. In the same way, the students who are learning to translate, the
existing linguistic aspects will provide fundamental pillar in the realization
of the translation.From
the previous opinion it can be concluded that linguistic aspects should be
understood by potential translators. This is because the linguistic aspect is
able to provide a strong enough foundation for a translator or interpreter
candidates to perform the activity.Lyons
(1995: 3) says that, “Semantics is traditionally defined as the study of
meaning.” Crystal (1985: 273) says that, “Nida (1975: 26) explains
that: “In other words, the meaning consists of that set of necessary and
sufficient conceptual features which make it possible for the speaker to
separate the referential potentiality of any one lexical unit from that of any
other unit which might tend to occupy part of the same semantic domain”.Opinion
Nida was reaffirmed by Subroto et al (1999: 2), which explains that, “The
formula associated with lexical meaning and particular lexical units.” The
lexical meaning of a lexical units (or more appropriately called leksem)
consists of a package of cognitive structured features. This means that meaning
(meaning) understands or is controlled by the language of empirically based
cognitive abilities from the beginning began to learn and master the language.Alwasilah
(1984: 146) says: “The meaning of words.” Meanwhile, Nida (1975: 1)
explains that, in addition Lepschy in Samiati “A word can have many
different meanings.” (1998: 3) revealed that “meaning tends to be
used only as a means to define only linguistic unity.” another expert
explained that, “the meaning should be evaluated in terms of its function
as a communication tool that studies the meaning should refer to the various
functions that are relevant to the act of language” (Jakobson, 1960 in
Samiati,1998: 3). Meanwhile, Leech (1993: 8) defines prakmatics as, “The
study of meaning in relation to speech situations” (Situations of speech).An
example is the use of the word “run” in the following sentences
(Larson, 1984: 8), namely (1) The child executes, (2) The clock runs, (3) The
nose is executed, and (4) ) The river runs. It condemns the use of the same
word, which is “running”. The phrase “the boy runs”
translated “The boy ran”, “The clock runs” means “The
clock turning”, “The nose runs” translated “The boy was
cold”, and the last phrase of “The river runs” to “the
river flow”. From the comparison of the four sentences, several different
meanings of the word run were obtained, that is, “running”, “spinning”,
“cold”, and “flow” so that the meaning of a word is not
fixed by the form of the lexicon, but also affected by other factors, for
example, grammatical structure factors, speech situation and educational
background.In
relation to translation, Samiati (1998: 3) grouped into five types of meaning,
meaning lexical, grammatical meaning, contextual meaning, the meaning of the
text and the meaning of the situation. Lexical meaning and grammatical meaning,
refers to the micro-linguistic context, while contextual meaning, textual and
situational context refers to micro- and macro-linguistics. A similar opinion
is expressed by M.R. Nababan (1997: 36-38), that, “The problem of deep
meaning the translation can be classified in 5, that is; lexical meaning, grammatical
meaning, contextual meaning or the importance of the situation, that is,
textual and socio-cultural meaning. “lexical meaning is the meaning of the
elements of language as symbols or events, etc. Leksial sense can also be
referred to the meaning in the dictionary, remember a word in the dictionary
loose its use or context.For example, as an adjective, the word ‘bad’ can have
six meanings of ‘Wicked’, ‘bad’, ‘bad’, ‘hard’, ‘bad’ and ‘rotten’.If
the lexical meaning that the meaning escapes from its context is mentioned,
then the grammatical meaning is the opposite. The grammatical meaning is the
relationship between the elements of language in a larger unit. He gives an
example of using the word “can.” The word can mean ‘can’, ‘can’ and
‘inclination’, depending on the position of the word in the sentence. The use
of the word “can” in the phrase “They can the fish” is
different from the use of the word “can” in the sentence “I have
kicked the can hard”. Contextual or situational meaning, that is, the meaning
of a word related to the situation of the user of the language. Kridalaksana
(1984: 120) clarifies that “the contextual meaning is the connection
between speech and the situation in which speech is used contextually”,
for example, the saying of “Good morning” to greet the deceased
employee. Speech can be interpreted ‘outside’ when the boss says angry and
annoyed.The
textual meaning is a meaning related to the content of a text or speech.
Different types of text can also make the meaning of a word different. The use
of the word “morphology” in biological texts has a different meaning
from the word “morphology” in the linguistic text. While the meaning
of sociocultural is the meaning of a word that is closely related to the users
of sociocultural language. Because it comes from Batak, the word ‘marhusip’ is
raised be an example In the Batak Toba language, the word not only means
“whisper”, but it is much broader and more complex in terms of the
cultural context of marriage.Yusuf
(1994: 93) explains that, “when examining the meaning of words, a
distinction is generally made between denotative meanings and connotative
meanings”. Denotative meanings are dictionary meanings, meanings that are
general, objective and are not yet contained in a particular content, value or
taste. On the contrary, the connotative meaning is subjective in the sense that
there is another meaning behind the meaning or general meaning of the
dictionary. While Beekam and Callow (in Larson 1989: 110), “uses the term
primary meaning and secondary meaning”. The main meaning is the meaning
that comes the speaker’s mind if the word is spoken in isolation, while the
secondary meaning is a meaning that depends on the context.Starting
from several points of view and opinions, it can be concluded that the problem
of meaning in translation can be classified into six, namely, the meaning of
lexical, grammatical meaning, contextual or situational meaning, textual
meaning, sociocultural meaning and the idiomatic meanings.The
lexical meaningThe
lexical meanings tend to refer to the meaning that is in the dictionary, which
is the meaning of independence as it is. For example, the word
“prayer” has the meaning of “sentence” or
“punishment”. It can not be distinguished because the word is still
independent. The word has not been affected by other factors. In this sense,
Machali (2000: 24) reveals that, “The lexical meaning (of the word
lexicon: the word) is the meaning we find in the general dictionary, for
example: in the Indonesian-English dictionary” dog “=” dog
“. “Grammatical
meaningThe
grammatical meaning is the meaning of a word due to the influence of the use of
the structure of the sentence used. The meaning of the word “prayer”
in the sentence “It is an active prayer” or “At least one
sentence that provides the subject and the predicate” is different from
the “prayer or both” sentence. In addition, Machali (2000: 24) says
that, “The grammatical meaning is the meaning formed by the composition of
words or phrases, clauses or sentences, as the meaning formed due to the suffix
added in the word” borrow “and” borrow ” , which in English
for “borrow” and “borrow”.Contextual
meaning”Contextual
meaning is called situational meaning” (Nababan 1997: 37). This contextual
meaning is the meaning of a word or phrase due to the situation in the use of
language. An interesting example is (Soemarno in Nababan, 1997: 38) the use of
the phrase “I really hate you” is spoken by a couple of lovebirds who
kiss in the park. The woman pinched her lover’s arm while saying the prayer in
a voice. Of course, prayer has the opposite meaning, especially the use of the
word “hate”.Textual
meaningTextual
meaning means meaning that arises or derives from the content of a particular
text or reading. An example is the word ‘prayer’ as mentioned above. In reading
about language, of course, the word refers to the use of sentences and
seputarnya. However, if the word is found in the reading of the legal field, of
course, it will lead to punishment and the environment. Sociocultural
meaningSociocultural
importance is closely related to cultural culture and social relations in
society. Soemarno (1997: 3-8) offers many examples of both related to kinship,
visions of the world, stereotypical terms, cultural events, language terms and
greetings. For example, the translation of ‘mbah canggah’, ‘udeg-udeg’,
‘selapanan’, ‘midodareni’, ‘droplets’ to the use of the sentence ‘manunggaling
kawula gusti’. Without a clear description, consumers of translations will have
difficulty understanding the terms that refer to the cultural issue. In
addition, Machali (2000: 25) mentions sociocultural meaning as a sociocultural
meaning, that is, “the meaning formed by the local culture or also has a
certain social content”. An example is the phrase “Selamat
Makan”, which is not in the “English” culture, so there is no
“Good eat”. For socially charged meanings are, for example, the words
“lunch” and “lunch” in English; the second word is more
widely used by those of higher social class than other classes.Idiomatic
MeaningOther
idiomatic or idiomatic meanings – proverb, maxim and placement – are also
noteworthy in the translation process. What is meant by idiomatic meaning is
the meaning associated with special expressions that also have a special
meaning as well. Idiomatic form that can not be changed in agreement,
eliminated one of the elements that said, more or replaced elements said or
changed its structure. The expression is a frozen form of language and it is
not possible to add variations to its form and its meaning can not be inferred
from the component separately. For example, the idiom ‘Half a loa is better
than one’ is defined as ‘better late than never’ and the idiom ‘It is raining
cats and dogs’ means ‘Rain is very heavy’. For more details, Baker (1992: 62)
states that, “In the case of idioms, Bork (1999: 27) states that the idiom
is” A fixed combination of words whose meaning is derived from perceiving
the unit as a whole and not as individual words. ”   CONCLUSION
From
some understanding it can be concluded that understanding and mastering the
linguistic aspects in both the source language and the target language is
fundamental to producing the translation work. The meaning can be caused by the
very form of the language, which means that it can be due to the structure of
the language used, the meaning can be realized due to the situation of the user
of the language itself, meaning that it can have meaning because the use in a
certain field of science. The meanings can also arise from existing sociocultural
cultures. Therefore, it can be seen that the problem of meaning can be found in
various contexts.