Plant germination, induction of flowering and fruiting,

Plant Growth Regulators, Auxins and Hormones

Plant hormones are endogenous cell compounds with a regulatory role in plant growth
and fruit ripening. In general, plant growth substances are categorized into five (5) major groups,
each of which has a
specific function.

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Those groups are:

(a)
Auxins
and (b) Cytokinins: Auxins and Cytokinins (natural or
synthetic) usually work together and are by far the most important for
regulating plant growth and morphogenesis. Auxins are compounds that positively
influence cell enlargement, bud formation and root initiation. They also
promote the production of other hormones. Cytokinins are a group of chemicals
that influence cell division and help delay senescence of tissues. Auxins together
with Cytokinins, they control the growth of stems, roots and fruits, and also convert
stems into flowers.

(c)
Gibberellins: Gibberellins are important in seed germination. They also promote
flowering and cellular division.

(d)
Ethylene: Ethylene forms
through the breakdown of methionine in plant cells. Its effectiveness as a
plant hormone depends on its rate of production, versus its rate of escaping
into the atmosphere. Ethylene affects cell growth and shape (stem diameter and
height) as well as fruit-ripening.

(e)
Abscisic acid: Abscisic acid acts as an inhibitor that affects bud growth, and seed.

 (Plant hormone – Wiki)

The appropriate use of Plant growth regulators is widely used in modern
horticulture, because many plant processes can be actively regulated. For example, acceleration or delay
of seed germination, induction of flowering and fruiting, acceleration or delay of senescence
processes including fruit ripening and defoliation. The achieved benefits range
from facilitating crop management to increasing and securing yield and quality
of the production as well as improving
its storage and shelf life. (Rademacher, 2015)

 

Grapevine Growth Regulators, Auxins and
Hormones

Grape and wine production is
extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process which is under complex
hormonal control. An overview of the roles of abscisic acid and ethylene as
promoters of ripening, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins and
gibberellins as inhibitors of ripening are shown in Figure 1. (Fortes, Teixeira, &
Agudelo-Romero, 2015)

Fig.1 Overview of the main events
involved in the hormonal control of grape development and ripening

 (Fortes, Teixeira, & Agudelo-Romero, 2015)

 

 

Considering the data given we can easily understand that any well
informed grower is able to control his production growth and ripening to suit
his needs.

 

Major conclusions
and recommendations

For a grower with entrepreneur interests what matters the most is the
yield per unit ratio, meaning how much useful crop he can generate with minimal
cost. It is already mentioned that for recreational agricultural purposes there
are various propagation methods. However for any company to achieve
profitability, the revenues have to be higher than the expenses. This can be
achieved by selecting the most cost effective growing method, as well as the
appropriate variety that is best suited for the climate and the grower’s needs.
Those are the first vital steps toward profitability. (David Tilman, Cassman, &
Matson, 2002)

Grapes grown for any kind of production (especially for fresh fruit) are
high maintenance plants that require regular pruning and ongoing attention to
insect and diseases……………..