Jean revolutionary socialist thinker whose theories and

Jean de Dieu Kamiri

12/20/2017

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The
Comparison of  the Three Main Sociological
Perspectives  as Well as One the Main Theorists

            The Sociology is  the science of society, social institutions, and social
relationships; specifically : the systematic study of the development,
structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of human
beings or the study of groups and group interactions, from small and
personal groups to very large groups. The Sociologists study development
of societies, institutions, and the organization that they can identify causes
of the changing relationships among groups and personals with a particular
interest. They believe that our social surroundings influence
thought and action. In
sociology, social facts are values, cultural norms, and social structures
that transcend the individual and can exercise social control. French
sociologist Émile Durkheim defined the term, and argued that the discipline of
Sociology should be understood as the empirical study of social facts (publisher
by en.wikipedia.org). I am going to compare the three main Sociological
Perspectives (Structural Functionalist, Social Conflict Theory, and
Symbolic Interactions) as well as one the main theorists (Emile Durkheim,
Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Talcott Parsons).

            First
all, let’s see Karl Max (1818-1883)  was
a German philosopher, author and economist famous for his theories about
capitalism and communism. He was a revolutionary socialist thinker whose
theories and ideas became popular during nineteenth century. Max  ideas are considered the foundation of
communism. He was a strong opponent to capitalism because he believed it only
increased tensions, which would eventually lead to the destruction of a
society. Example how Max ideas still showing the conflicts today, let’s see the
impact of the global Impact of Globalization on Small business is a
classic story, often used by socialists to highlight the “evils of a
capitalist society” – the small town grocer gets mercilessly taken out by
the new Wal-Mart in town. The small town grocer may have an established
customer base and friendly relations with the community, but it simply can’t
match the low prices offered by Wal-Mart. Being a large national company,
Wal-Mart has the sprawling global resources and is willing to sacrifice margins
to take out local competitors ( Leo Sun).

            second, Emile Durkheim
developed theories of social structure that included functionalism, the
division of labor, and anomie. These theories were founded on the concept of
social facts, or societal norms, values, and structures. Functionalism is
a concept with three integral elements. it emphasizes
a societal equilibrium. If something happens to disrupt the order and the flow
of the system, society must adjust to achieve a stable state. According to
Durkheim, society should be analyzed and described in terms of functions.
Society is a system of interrelated parts where no one part can function
without the other. These parts make up the whole of society. If one part
changes, it has an impact on society as a whole. ( slideshare.net)

For example, the state provides public education for
children. The family of the children pays taxes, which the state uses for
public education. The children who learn from public education go on to become
law-abiding and working citizens, who pay taxes to support the state.

Let’s
look at this example again. The state provides public education for children.
But a disruption or disequilibrium in the system occurs – perhaps the education
is subpar, and the children drop out and become criminals. The system adjusts
to improve the education and attempts to rehabilitate (through jail or other
means) the criminals for them to become law-abiding and taxpaying citizens.

Durkheim
actually viewed crime and delinquent behavior as a normal and necessary
occurrence in the social system. He proposed that crime led to reactions from
society about the crime. These shared reactions were used to create common
consensuses of what individuals felt were moral and ethical norms by which to
abide. These commonly held norms and values led to boundaries and rules for the
society.

            Third, the three-component
theory of stratification, more widely known as Weberian stratification or
the three class system, was
developed by German  sociologist Max Weber with class, status, and
power  as distinct ideal types. Weber urbanized a multidimensional
theory to social stratification that reflects the interaction among power,
wealth, and prestige. Weber argued that power can take a different forms. A
person’s power can be shown in the social order through their status, in the
economic order through their class, and in the political order through their
party. Thus, party, status, and class are each aspects of the distribution of
power within a community. They have not only a huge deal of effect within their
individual areas but also a huge deal of power over the other areas( publisher
by en.wikipedia.org). Weber’s sociological
theories had a great impact on twentieth-century sociology. He developed the
notion of “ideal types,”. Ideal type means ‘Ideal’ is a “conception or a
standard of something in its highest perfection.” It refers to mental image or
conception rather than a material object. It is a model. The term type means a
kind, class or group as distinguished by a particular character .According to
Weber, religion have a great role in human life and human development. • Ideas,
beliefs, values and world view of human societies that guide the way their
members acted even in economic sphere.( Ammar Faroog)

            Fourth, Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) was an American sociologist who served on
the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973.Parsons was one of the most influential structural
functionalists of the 1950s. As a functionalist, he was concerned with how
elements of society were functional for a society. Based on empirical data, Parsons’ social action theory
was the first broad, systematic, and generalizable theory of social systems  developed
in the United States. Some of Parsons’ largest contributions to
sociology in the English-speaking world were his translations of Max
Weber’s work and his analyses of works by Weber,Emile Durkheim, and Vilfredo
pareto. Their work heavily influenced Parsons’ view and was the foundation for
his social action theory; Parsons viewed voluntaristic action through the lens
of the cultural values and social structures that constrain choices and
ultimately determine all social actions, as opposed to actions that are
determined based on internal psychological processes.

Although
Parsons is generally considered a Structural functionalist, towards the
end of his career, in 1975, he published an article that stated that
“functional” and “structural functionalist” were
inappropriate ways to describe the character of his theory. (Talcott persons)

            Last Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. … Sociologists today
employ three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interaction perspective, the functionalist perspective, and the conflict perspective.  By comparing the three main Sociological
Perspectives (Structural Functionalist, Social Conflict Theory, and
Symbolic Interactionist) . Structural functionalist Sees
society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and
stability.  Parts of society
(such as businesses, families, and governments) work together in a systematic
way that is usually good for the whole.  Each part helps to maintain the
balance that is needed for the system to operate smoothly. Example: deviance
what is deviant may vary, but deviance is found in all societies; deviance and
the social response it provokes sustain the moral foundation of society. 
Deviance may also guide social change. Social conflict Sees society as an arena
of inequality that generates conflict and change.  Most sociologists that
use this approach attempt not only to understand society, but also to reduce
the social inequality in it.  This
emphasizes struggle over limited resources, power, and prestige as a permanent
aspect of societies and a major source of social change. Example: deviance
regulations and other norms reproduce the interests of powerful partners
of society; those who threaten the status quo are generally defined as deviant;
social injury caused by powerful people is less likely to be considered
criminal than is social injury that is caused by people who have little social
power. Symbolic interaction Sees society as the product of the everyday
interactions of individuals.  This is a more micro-level approach (smaller
– focusing on patterns of social interaction in specific settings).  Focuses on how people interact in their
everyday life and how they make sense of this interaction. Example:
deviance nothing is inherently deviant but may become defined as such
through the responses of others; the reactions of others are highly variable;
labeling someone as deviant may lead to the development of secondary deviance
and deviant careers.

References:  –
en.wikipedia.org

       
-www.youarticlelibrary.com

         – quizlet.com