INTRODUCTION devices that are used for Work

INTRODUCTION TO SHAPER MACHINE

In shaping
process Cutting tool moves to and fro whereas work piece remain stationary.
Basically shaper machine is used where we have to machine small work piece or
small amount of material has to remove. It uses reciprocating motion to move
the tool.

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WORKING PRINCIPLE

Work piece
is tightly hold in vice on table and single point cutting tool is held in tool post.
When tool reciprocates forward it removes the material from work piece and when
it return the tool is lifted and it performs no cutting action.

Construction of shaper machine

Generally shaper machine consist of following parts:

1.      
Base

2.      
Body (Frame, pillar, column)

3.      
Cross rail

4.      
Ram and tool head

Base:

                Base is
that part of shaper machine which is manufactured cast iron.it supports the
whole machine as well as to absorb the vibrations produced during working of
machine.

Body:

               It is
mounted on the base and holds the Driving mechanism such as gear box and quick
return mechanism of ram. It also consist of guide ways to move ram and cross
rail.

Cross rail:

                 Cross
rail allows the work piece to move up and down mean top change the height of
workpiece.it consist of following parts:

·        
Table

·        
Saddle

Table moves the work piece left and right whereas Saddle
moves the work piece to and fro.

 

 

Ram and tool head:

                The ram
is driven forward and backward in its slides by the help of guide ways. The
forward and backward development of ram is called stroke and it can be balanced
by the length of the work piece to be-machined.

Work and tool holding devices used in
Shaper machines

Following
are the devices that are used for Work or tool holding:

1.      Chucks

2.      Special jig

3.      Angle plate

4.      Plane vice

5.      Universal vice

6.      Clamps

Chucks:

            Chucks are mainly used to hold work
piece on shaper machine. Chucks consist of following types:

·        
Three
jaw chuck

·        
Four
jaw chuck

Special Jig:

             Jig is work holding device that size and
locate the workpiece.It can be designed according to the design of work piece.

Angle plate:

            Angle plate is used when work piece
is fastened at an angle.

 

 

Plane vice:

                Plane
vice is commonly used work holding device that is used to grip the work piece
on the table with the help of bolts.

Universal vice:

            Universal vice work same as plane
vice but it can move itself at different angles.in other words we can say that
it is more precise than plane vice.

Clamps:

            Clamps are used when you have to
grip the work piece. Following are some of the main types of clamps:

(i) Screw heel clamp

(ii) Goose neck clamp

(iii) Universal adjustable clamp

(iv) Plain clamp

(v) U clamp

(vi) Single finger clamp

(vii) Double finger clamp

 

Types of shaper machines

Following
are the main types of shaper machines

·        
Horizontal
Shaper machine

o  
Plane
shapers

o  
Universal
shapers

·        
Vertical
shaper machine

·        
Crank
shapers

·        
Gears
shaper

·       
Hydraulic
shapers

Operations of shaper machine

Following
are some of the main operation that are done on shaper machine:

·        
Keyways
for pulleys and gears

·        
Dove
tails

·        
Internal
splines and gears

·        
Slots

Operation
Calculation for shaper machines

 

 

 

 

 

 

Difference between Shaper and planer

Shaper

Planner

1.      Shaper is used to work on light
weight objects.

Planner is
used to work on heavy duty objects

2.      Shaper use reciprocating motion to
move its ram with the help of gear or pulley mechanism.

Planner
also use reciprocating motion to move its ram but with the help of hydraulic
system.

3.      In shaper single cutting tool is
used.

In planner
multi cutting tool are used for operation.

4.      Requires less floor space.

Requires
more floor space.

5.      Less costly then planner machine

More
costly then shaper machine.

6.      Less accurate.

More
accurate than shaper machine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Sawing

Saw is a
machine that consist of a hard blade with sharp teeth forwarded or
backwarded.It working principle of shearing some of the commonly used types of
sawing machines are as follows:

1.      Reciprocating saw

2.      Band saw

3.      Circular saw

1.
Reciprocating saw:

                                    This is saw
is also called power saw. It uses the reciprocating motion that is generated by
fly wheel .which is rotated with the help of motor.

2. Band saw:

Band saw is a type of sawing machine
that consist of long blade that move continuously and cuts the material. The
blade runs over two wheels of machine with the help of motor. Generally it is
used to cut light weight objects or to make light weight contours      

 

 

 

4.     Circular saw:

                                         It
works on the same principle of band saw but it is used to work heavy                       duty work pieces.
Whereas its body structure is smaller than band saw. It consist of abrasive
material disc.

Construction of Power saw

 

 

1.      Arm:

Arm is used to support the blade or tighten the blade. It
also transforms the reciprocating movement to the blade.

2.      Vice:

Vice is used to hold the
work piece .Vice play an important role in operation because if the gripping or
clamping force is less than the size of work piece then blade can cut in
inclined direction.

3.      Blade:

Blade is used to cut the material. Its teeth is generally in
forward direction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Broaching

Broaching is
also a material process in which material is removed with the help of a toothed
tool. The cutting tool used for broaching is called broach. Broaching is
commonly used for precise working especially for odd pieces. Broaching is done
on lathe machine as well as a special machine is used for this process called
broaching machine According to the type of operation.

Types of broaching operation

Generally
broaching operation is categorized in two types:

·        
Linear
broaching

·        
Rotary
broaching

 

1.
Linear broaching:

                                    In linear
broaching the tool moves linearly and removes the material from the work piece.
Common use of linear broaching is Key way making.

2.
Rotary broaching:

                                    In Rotary
Broaching tool is rotated and moved in the work piece with the help of
pressure. Rotary broach is used on lathe or screw machine.

Construction of broaching machine

                                   

 

Following
are some of the main parts of broaching machine:

·        
Column

·        
Slide

·        
Cutting
stroke

·        
Work
table

·        
Base

1.
Column:

                   Column support the sliding mechanism of broaching
machine on which cutting tool is moved up and down.

2.
Slide:

                
Slide is that part of machine that moves with the help of guide ways
with this Cutting tool is moved.

3.
Cutting Stroke:

                
Cutting stroke is that movement of slide in which cutting process is
done during up and down motion of slide.

4.
Work table:

                   Work table is a part on which work piece
is hold with the help of work holding device like vice or clamps.

4.      Base:

                   Base is that par which is made of cast
iron to resist the vibration produced during the machining operation. On base
whole machine holds.

Types of broaching machine

A) According to direction of broach travel.

1) Horizontal broaching machine

2) Vertical broaching machine

B) According to Method of operation.

1) Pull broaching machine

2) Push broaching machine

3) Surface broaching machine

4) Continuous broaching machine

 

C) According to Method of drive.

1) Mechanical Drive machine

2) Pneumatic drive machine

3) Hydraulic drive machine

D) According to type of operation.

1) External broaching machine

2) Internal broaching machine