Industrial enzymes as pectinases, cellulases and microorganisms

Industrial fruit juice production started back in
1930s, and while dealing mainly with the low yield and filtration issues,
researches solved the difficulties by using enzymes as pectinases, cellulases
and microorganisms that produce hemicelluloses, known as maceration enzymes.

Fruit juices are mainly made of polysaccharides as
cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch and pectin, proteins, tannin, metals (Vaillant,
F et al. Journal of Food Engineering,
2001, 48, 83–

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90). Today, one of major problems encountered in fruit
juice production is so cold cloudiness due to the pectin presence. This can be
removed with the help of enzymatic depectinization. However, the main goal is
to increase the yield as well as better extraction for colour and this is done
by using enzyme complex, just the way researches found out back in the 1930s (Santin, M.M. Aplicac¸a˜o de tratamento enzima´ tico
combinado a microfiltrac¸a˜o na clarificac¸a˜o de suco de peˆssego.
Erechim, RS: Dissertac¸a˜o de mestrado. Universidade Regional integrada do Alto
Uruguai e das Misso˜ es. 2004. pp. 79. )

Europe
holds 60% of the worldwide enzymes production. Around 200 out of 4000 known
enzymes, are used in industrial productions and most of them are from microbial
origin (Dors, G. Hidro´lise Enzima´tica e Biodigesta˜o de Efluentes da
Indu´stria de Produtos Av?´colas. Floriano´polis, SC. Brazil. Dissertac¸a˜o
de Mestrado (Engenharia Qu?´mica), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. 2006.
pp. 101).

There
are two main groups of enzymes used in fruit juice productions: pectinases and
amylases.

Fungal
acid amylase and amyloglucosidase are mostly used in processing fruits that contain
starch. For example, unripe apples at harvest time (Wolfgang Aehle, Enzymes in Industriy, Enzymes in food
application , pp.99- 101).

Under
conditions of long periods of time at low temperature, fruit pulp containing
starch in amounts to results gelatinizing or turbidity the making process
difficult. In such cases, demands of amylolytic enzymes, such as glucoamylase
is increased (Aquarone, E., Borzani, W., Shmidell, W., and Lima, U.A. Biotecnologia
Industrial.. Sa˜o Paulo: Edgard Blucher. 2001. pp. 254).

In
addition, hemicellulases and celulases are used in fruit juices optimize the
processing, taking part as well in action on soluble pectin hydrolysis and on
cell wall, lowering viscosity and maintenance of texture (Uenojo, M.et al. Qu?´mica
Nova., 2007, 30, 388–394) . However they are forbidden in Fruit
Juice Directive( COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2001 ? 112 ? EC).

Other
enzymes of interest are phenolases related to darkening juice, laccase to
phenolic compounds, and naringinase and limoninase acting upon bitterness in
citrus juices’ compounds. 

Phenolases
or polyphenol oxidases can be founf in plants, animals and fungi, causing
fruits and vegetables to darken. Laccase is polyphenoloxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) and
can be fungi, bacteria or plants origin. Reacts with phenolic compounds and
form free radical, which may be transform in quinone, which undergo
polymerization. Naringinase can be optain from culture as Aspergillus niger,
Aspergillus oryzae, Penicilium decumbens, Phanopsis citri, Aspergillus usamii, Cochiobolus
miyabeanus, Rhizotonia solani and Rhizopus nigricans (Puri, M. & Banerjee, U.C.
Biotechnology Advances, 2000,
18, 207–217).

Another is Carbohydrase enzyme used in mash
treatment in juice extraction by decanter centrifuge, having the role in
improving juice color and aroma, faster solids separation and concentration,
increase processing capacity, increase sugar and acid extraction, increase
juice yields.