In information and communication technologies, such as

In recent years, the Internet communication technologies have
significantly affected the way information is presented. Governments around the
world are recognizing the power of the Internet, so, they are implementing
e-governance, the deployment of digitized inter-connective communication
systems linking governmental organizations and its stakeholders such as the
public, businesses, and other governments. In this way, e-governance has
been significantly important for practitioners and an attractive research topic
for scientists. This can be generally ascribed to the application of modern
information and communication technologies, such as the Internet, automation
tools and mobile devices, within the public sector, which bring along
substantial advantages. The various benefits of e-governance, e-health and
e-signature services are well documented in the scientific literature and
especially include efficiency gains, cost reductions, as well as improved
transparency and quality of citizen services. Of
course, to completely take advantage of these benefits requires
administrations to adequately implement e-governance services. However, it is not unusual for governments to try and
use technological innovation to improve their operations and services. What is
extraordinary about e-governance is the widespread execution of these programs
around the globe. Countries all around the world from developed to developing,
capitalist to communist, democracy to authoritarian are spending resources to
make e-governance applicable. It should be considered that e-governance
implementation represents an internal public administration issue and
corresponding aspects cannot solely be captured by citizen-based studies. The
main aspects of e-governance implementation are not yet thoroughly understood
and the provider-perspective requires further examination.1

 

In the past, government’s
organizations used to pay little attention to service quality or responsiveness
to clients ­­– basically to citizens. However, they have realized that has to
be changed, so, this has been changed with the movement termed “new public management”.2
Taken together, it can be said that professional
management practices such as service quality, performance management and risk
management are emphasized in new public management, therefore, e?governance is perhaps the
second revolution in public management after new public management, which may
transform not only the way in which most public services are delivered, but
also the fundamental relationship between government and citizens.

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E?governance initiatives are common in most countries, including
industrialised economies, emerging economies, and developing economies but why e-governance, despite its required benefits as well
as scientific and practical importance, has not been fully implemented in many
countries? Of course there are many reasons of why e-governance has not been
implemented, such as population, lack of technology and so on. In this context,
we cannot explain all of these reasons, however, we can summarize that some potential
problems. In line with this, e-government implementation still struggles and
several aspects are vague and not fully understood, therefore, this study thus
aims to show some samples from implementing
e-Governance, e-voting, e-signature e-health and e-prescription.

 

 

MAIN
RESEARCH

 

As will be
shown in the following, one of the last articles about e-governance says that
there are two notions relevant to implementations of e-governance, drivers and
barriers. The drivers of e-governance implementation are classified into three categories.
Those are improvement of service quality, improvement of internal
administration processes and cost and time savings. Firstly, relating to the
improvement of service quality in general is an important impact factor in online
business environments. Accordingly, service quality also plays an important role
in the field of e-governance. More specifically, e-government is considered to
facilitate interaction of citizens with administrations by providing them time-independent
and faster access from multiple locations through the Internet. So, it can be
said in this way citizens are able to address their personal needs more easily
and handle bureaucratic matters more quickly.3
Wirtz and Piehler also emphasize the customer orientation in increasing the
quality of service provision and point out that service quality may be
increased by diminishing throughput time and by providing open government data.
This is also consistent with the proposition that e-governance may enhance transparency
in the public sector, which in turn may contribute to a higher service quality.4
Furthermore, it is also important highlighting that service quality positively
influences user satisfaction, which in turn impacts the adoption of
e-governance.

Secondly,
with regard to the improvement of internal administration processes, it can be
said that e-governance implementations enhance the efficiency and effectiveness
of administrative workflows. Accelerated and simplified administration
procedures as well as faster and more efficient responses to citizen demands contribute
to a higher quality of administration and reduce red tape. Implementing
e-governance may further foster collaboration through information-sharing among
administrations and across different levels of government and collaboration, in
turn, along with other factors, such as management capacity as well as security
and privacy, are considered to be crucial drivers for e-governance
effectiveness.5
Implementing e-governance facilitates inter-organizational communication and
may therefore also improve organizational decision-making processes.

Finally,
e-government is considered to lead to cost and time savings for both citizens
and public administrations (Anthopoulos et al. 2007;
Wang and Liao 2008;
Scott et al. 2009;
Carter et al. 2012).
Faster throughput time for processes, as well as reduced transaction time and
costs can raise efficiency for administrations and citizens (Geiselhart et al. 2003).
More specifically, citizens can save time by seeking information or making
transactions on the Internet instead of being required to take care of this in
person (Koh et al. 2005),
especially avoiding queuing time at public administration facilities or on the
phone. Furthermore, administrations integrating appropriate technological
infrastructures, comprising the entirety of online and back-office systems to
support these requests by citizens, can be beneficial to both sides (Belanger
and Hiller 2006).
Such integrated e-government applications on the one hand enable citizens to save
time by communicating the same data only once and not each time to
administrations and on the other hand, public administrations may save time and
costs by not having to reenter the corresponding data (Fang 2002).

In summary, we
identify in the scientific literature the following three drivers associated
with implementing e-government: improvement of service quality and internal
administration processes as well as cost and time savings. However, an
integrated framework as proposed in our study also requires consideration of
factors inhibiting e-government implementation. Therefore, we explore the
opposing side by identifying barriers in the following.

1
Ebrahim, Z., & Irani, Z. (2005). E-government adoption: architecture and
barriers. Business Process Management Journal, 11(5), 589–611.

2 Hughes, O. E. (2012). Public management and administration. Palgrave Macmillan.

3
Wirtz, B. W., Weyerer, J. C., Thomas, M. J., & Möller, A. (2017).
E-government implementation: Theoretical aspects and empirical evidence. Public
Organization Review, 17(1), 101-120.

4
Wirtz, B.W., & Piehler, R. (2015). eGovernment Applications and public
personnel acceptance: an empirical analysis of the public servant perspective.
International Journal of Public Administration, forthcoming.

5
Reddick, C. G. (2009). Factors that explain the perceived effectiveness of
e-government: a survey of United States city government information technology
directors. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 5(2),
1–15.