Researchers have argued
that governance is the capacity of government to formulate and implement
policies with the view to steering the affairs of society (Pierre & Peters,
2000). Managers and stakeholders are linked together via the governance chain.
The governance chain “shows the roles and relationships of different groups
involved in the governance of an organisation” (Johnson et al., 2017, p.143).
Good governance has been identified as a requirement to promote and sustain
PPPs. (Bult-Spiering & Dewulf, 2006; UNECE, 2008; Babatunde, 2015). Hughes
(2003) has identified good governance as a reform strategy in strengthening the
capacity of civil society organisations and promote transparency,
responsiveness, accountability and democratic tenets. Governance theory is a
necessary ingredient in ensuring the success of PPPs. (Babatunde, 2015).
The PPP approach
involves various stakeholders and therefore applying the principles of the
stakeholder theory is crucial to understanding the successful implementation of
PPP projects. The governance theory will help in appreciating the roles and
responsibilities of the various actors within the concept of PPP.
chapter describes the methods and procedures used to obtain data for the
research work. The chapter explains the structure of the study, the target
population, sampling methods, sources of data, data collection instrument,
ethical considerations, and data analysis procedures.
3.2 Research Design
research design consists of four key components: research questions, data
collection, methods of data collection, and data analysis. This study employs a
descriptive approach, which shows how the research looks like and summarizes
the general nature of the findings (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2003).
This is the method used to obtain the necessary information or personal data
from the relevant population. The descriptive design provides a good number of
responses from the respondents. It makes it possible for data on critical
success factors for financing infrastructure in Ghana through PPP mechanisms to
be assessed by evaluating participants’ opinions. The choice of this research design makes it possible to
conduct a systematic examination of an event or a set of related events with
the aim of describing and explaining the phenomenon that is of interest to the
researcher (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2003). Since the research
is interested in exploring the CSFs in financing infrastructure in Ghana
through PPP, the descriptive research method is considered suitable.
Target Population of the Study
The research population is a
collection of components from which the sample is essentially selected. It
includes all the units or members from which information can be obtained (Rubin
& Babbie, 2001). Roberts (2010)
indicates that the population is the researcher’s target group on which he/she
would like the results to be applicable. The population of this study constitutes
respondents from the Ministry of Finance (MoF), the Ministry of Water
Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), the Ministry of Roads and Highways (MRH)
and their private sector partners in Ghana.
3.4 Sample Size
and Sampling Technique
When conducting research, it is often impossible
to collect data from all potential units that comprise the population.
Consequently, a sample from the population is selected for the study. The
purposive and snowball sampling techniques were considered appropriate for the
study. The researcher used these sampling techniques because they are essential
for gathering relevant information required for research within a short period
within the constraints of limited resources at the researcher’s disposal. These
sampling techniques are appropriate to help solicit specific information on CSRs
for financing the development of infrastructure and therefore, an expert with
the requisite experience is required to provide information (Atindabila, 2013).
These sampling techniques were employed to select 90 respondents to partake in
3.5.1 Type of Data
The qualitative research approach was considered
necessary for this study. Qualitative data
helps researchers to assess the occurrence of a phenomenon and its
effect on the society (Tull & Hawkings, 1990). It is used to measure an
entity or action in a specific way, and it is a research method that aims to
qualify data and apply some statistical analysis (Tull & Hawkings, 1990).
3.5.2 Source of Data
The main source of data used for this work is primary
data, which provided practical information through the administration of
self-designed structured questionnaires. The data collection involved
collecting information directly from the respondents. This approach helped the
respondents to provide specific responses to the research questions. This
method is considered to be the most effective and detailed form of getting
reliable information (Rubin & Babbie, 2001).
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection
questionnaire was developed by the researcher to gather the necessary
information. The questionnaires comprising close-ended questions were designed
based on the researcher’s objectives. The close-ended questions enabled
participants to express their views on options available to them. The
questionnaire has four sections. The first section contains information on the
demographic of the respondents. The second section collected data on critical
factors for the successful implementation of PPP projects. The third section
focused on the impact of CSFs on a successful delivery of PPP projects and the
final section looked at the factors that hamper the implementation of PPP projects
in Financing Infrastructure Development in Ghana.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
Before the commencement of the study, the
researcher sought permission from Management of the selected organisations for
their consent and the purpose of the study was explained as being for academic
purposes. Again, the researcher sought the consent of respondents and the
purpose of the study made known to them. Respondents were assured of
confidentiality, anonymity, and data protection.
3.8 Data Analysis
study used descriptive statistics and as such, simple frequency counts and
percentages were used in the data analysis. The Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to analyse the data and the findings
presented in simple descriptive statistics involving tables.