Gender world (Greenbaum, 2014). In Indonesia, gender

Gender discrimination is still happening in all aspects of life, all over the world (Greenbaum, 2014). In Indonesia, gender equality has always been an interesting issue to talk about. People in the country discuss whether the emancipation of women and gender equality have been reached or not. In fact, up until this point, gender equality has not been fully met. While the barriers between men and women are getting thinner since women began to speak up, there is still a presume that the degree and rights of women are still under men because they are believed to have a higher ability than women in any case. In addition, even though Indonesia has been influenced by the western culture, the inherent of eastern culture still there and is the guidelines to the norm of the society. If this kind of gender discrimination continues to happen, it can lead to many more problems in the future such as declining business and economy in the country due to the underestimation and little amount of chance for women.In Indonesia, the struggle for gender equality between men and women is based on the regulation caused by structural and institutional discrimination. As The Ministry of Manpower said, “discriminatory actions against the workforce in Indonesia are still quite high, namely in the range of 30 percent” (Republika, 2017).  Discrimination itself comes from stereotypes which in this case, towards a specific gender. In Indonesian society, a lot of stereotypes are attached to women which result in limiting women to develop and work in competition with men. The condition of a work environment, attitudes or individual behavior is very important because the attitude affects the behavior of one’s performance. Moreover, because the public believes that men are more active, more competitive, and even stronger than women, the existence of stereotyped behavior in this work environment is very detrimental to female employees.Gender discrimination in Indonesia is likely to be triggered by the cultural aspects. The culture of Indonesian society accustomed to supporting women for non-work is allegedly reflects the contribution of Indonesian women in the aspect of employment. According to reports from the International Labor Organization, only about 51.4 percent of women in Indonesia participate in the workforce (ILO, 2014). This discrimination is also reflected in government policies. According to The provisions of Article 93 paragraph (2) letter c and paragraph (4) letter e of the Manpower Law, the government only apply maternity leaves for female employees only, while male workers are only given leave for two days (Hukum Online, 2013). This form of policy does provide benefits to women. But unknowingly, this policy also risks affecting companies to not employ women, because maternity leaves indirectly impact on productivity decline. Indirectly, equality of giving time leave also gives equal opportunity for both parents to take care of their child.There are still many stereotypical assumptions about women’s leadership. Many consider that women are only worth standing behind men. Although much can be done by women behind men, women are still considered to have no authority. This is triggered by a common perception of women which have existed since a long time ago:Women are more sensitive”Women, on the other hand, are seen as passive, weak, gentle, more sensitive and passive in the field of accountability than men” (Utami, 2011). Indeed, naturally, women are more sensitive and they use their feeling way more often than men. Therefore, some might say that women cry more than men that this can be seen as weak. Physically, women are also softer than men. In terms of blood cells, the proportion of male blood cells far outstrips women, therefore, men are agile to exercise than women because of the ability to distribute more oxygen to body tissues (Koderi, 1999). So, many believe that they need men to protect them. However, women nowadays are required to be able to defend themselves because they are aware that they cannot always rely on others. So that today’s women have come into being stronger.Women do not deserve to be leadersBy reason of weakness, nature, behavior, and even culture, women in Indonesia are considered unfit to be leaders. Women are only considered complementary to men. It is sad that women who appear firmly and openly will be considered and called arrogant, coercive, and many other names. These kinds of assumptions and conditions that cause a lot of doubt on the female leader. However, today, many women have proved their ability to lead organizations in Indonesia.Indonesia’s cultures are mostly influenced by the eastern culture. Whatever the system of government is running, the cultural values ??of eastern is still felt even though it is not so dominant. Indeed, gender equality should think of people with their own nature, there are certain parts of religious teachings that must be obeyed and held firmly. Women work in the household while men work outside the home. This then becomes a habit and is seen as a custom. This condition becomes part of the life of Indonesian people which is socialized from generation to generation. According to Indonesia’s Ministry of Education and Culture (2017), about two-thirds of the 3.4 million illiterate people in Indonesia are women. There are still many Indonesian parents who think that women do not need advance education as they will live as a housewife and help their husband at home. Both in the government and private companies, there are only a few women who have successfully occupied high position compared to men. However, nowadays, the opportunity for men and women to get education and employment are almost the same. Women who have access to higher education generally can find more decent work. However, the selection of the work is still gender-based. “… the third pattern, recruitment of civil servants equal by gender but promotion positions meet proportionality based on gender. The fourth pattern, both in the recruitment and promotion of positions inequality of gender distribution” (Indonesia Development Forum, 2017). Women are considered weak, passive and dependent. Additionally, most women only are let to do jobs in the field of services with little skills such as administrative staff and a few who occupy the positions of managers or decision makers. These job differences contribute to the income gap in which women generally do not get the same wage compared to men for the same job. Women are also more likely to work in the family environment, whether they are paid or not, and do more household and nurturing work. Indeed, due to the influence from eastern culture, even though women are now free to pursue education at various levels, they still need their husband’s approval for them to build their career. According to data from Global Gender Gap Report (2015), it shows that Indonesia ranks 92th for gender equality. However, the latest data from the World Economic Forum shows that Indonesia has climbed the 88th rank. In fact, the wage gap is still very striking. The gap between wages in Indonesia is more than doubled. According to Statistic Indonesia (2017), the average salary a man earns per year is $5,000, but woman only earns about $3,600 per year. The various factors affecting the wage gap may include things like the educational background between women and men. The simulation by the International Poverty Center on the economic impact of gender discrimination in Latin America (2008) shows that if women do not experience any barriers to entering the labor market, poverty will be reduced by at least 25 percent in Argentina and Brazil, and by 40 percent in Chile. The estimates indicate that Indonesia is losing revenues of US $ 2.4 billion per year due to inequality in labor force participation between men and women. There are a number of key factors driving this distinction of work which then resulted in income gaps, including the legal and policy influences that were generated during the former president Suharto, which has a profound effect on gender roles that continue to reinforce social norms about women’s roles. In the New Order era of Suharto’s government, women were allowed to perform their socio-political role but only as a normative function under the tight control of the male political corporatist state (Dewi, 2016). In fact, for women, access to paid work and also self-employment is an important strategy to increase income and overcome poverty. If the government ignore the fact that the gender gap and discrimination are an important issue, it is not impossible that the economy will be declining in the future. The failure to address structural problems in labor markets, tax, and employment policy that women face does more than hold back their careers and aspirations for a better life. “In fact, barriers to participation by women also act as brakes on the national economy, stifling the economy’s ability to grow” (Schanzenbach, 2017). In conclusion, Indonesia is a country which cultures are mostly influenced by the eastern culture. Due to this understanding, many cultures in Indonesia are somewhat making women look marginalized in all aspects from family to work field. Meanwhile, as people gain a better understanding about gender equality and the society are starting to let women work and support the economy, many still believe that women should not be a leader and to only support the husband at home. Moreover, if this situation continues to happen, many problems such as declining economic will rise in the future.