Epidemiology cases over a certain time interval

Epidemiology of Crohn’s Disease:

 

Disease incidence and prevalence:

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IBD is thought to be associated with industrialization of nations, with
the highest incidence rates and prevalence of IBD in North America(Canada)(Bernstein, Blanchard, Rawsthorne, &
Wajda, 1999), Europe (Vind et al., 2006) and United kingdom.(Rubin, Hungin, Kelly, & Ling, 2000). The incidence of IBD rising in developing nations as they have become
industrialized(Benchimol et
al., 2014; Desai & Gupte, 2005; Ng et al., 2013; Sood, Midha, Sood, Bhatia,
& Avasthi, 2003; Yang et al., 2014; Zheng et al., 2005). Industrialization seems to be an
environmental precondition for the increasing incidence, containing the most
important environmental components behind the initiation of the history of crohn’s
disease.

 

 Several studies have reported
that the incidence of IBD has increased distinctly over the latter part of the
20th century, (Loftus, 2004;
LOGAN, 1998) while other studies have suggested a plateau
or even decline in incidence in certain geographic regions. (Loftus, 2004; LOGAN, 1998)

 

Although there are few epidemiologic data from developing countries, the
incidence and prevalence of IBD are increasing with time and in different
regions around the world, indicating its emergence as a global disease.(Molodecky et al., 2012).

 

 

Incidence is the frequency of new cases over a certain time interval and
is expressed as an incidence rate (the convention in the IBD literature is
cases per 100,000 person-years).

In a recent study, it has been found that the highest annual incidence
of UC was 24.3 per 100,000 person-years in Europe, 6.3 per 100,000 person-years
in Asia and the Middle East, and 19.2 per 100,000 person-years in North
America.

 

The highest annual incidence of CD was 12.7 per 100,000
person-years in Europe, 5.0 per 100,000 person-years in Asia and the Middle
East, and 20.2 per 100,000 person-years in North America.

The highest reported prevalence for IBD was found in Europe where
prevalence of UC was 505 per 100,000 persons and that of CD was 322 per 100,000
persons whereas In North America the prevalence slightly lower than that (249
per 100,000 persons in UC and 319 per 100,000 persons in CD). In time-trend
analyses, 75% of CD studies and 60% of UC studies had an increasing incidence
of statistical significance (P