Encryption The purpose of encryption is to protect any data on computers or transferred within the internet or computer networks. Encryption is one of the most secure ways to protect your data. It is vital having a secret key or a password to be able to decrypt it. Example: the hard drive in a laptop may be encrypted, which means that a password is required to access data.Call Back SecurityIt is a security feature that checks the dial-in user, it checks the password, then it ends the call. Later the person will receive a call back to make sure that is the right person. This is done by checking the user’s username and password.Example: after calling a customer back, they would have to verify their username and password and then they can access the service. HandshakingThrough the process of handshaking, a computer makes a connection with another computer or device. It is the term to the steps of confirming the connection or exchanging information to set up a communication link between two PCs.Example: when a modem connects to another modem, the sound heard, when dialling a call from a computer, is evidence of handshaking.Diskless NetworksIt is a diskless PC that does not have a hard drive and uses a network server to save files. It loads an operating system by using network booting on each workstation.Example: It is popular with small companies because it is cheaper to operate and to maintain due to sharing the system. Backups:Backups are the process of having duplicate copies of your data saved in a remote location. This keeps it safe in case your computer stops working.Example: files can be saved on your computer hard drive, but if your computer breaks down, this will not protect the information. It would be safer to store and back up onto data to a separate location, such as an external hard drive, or a large-capacity pen drive.A safer and more effective method of securing files is an online backup. Files stored online are safe if something goes wrong with your machine as you will still have remote access to your information from any other computer. Audit LogsAn audit log is used to trace all the actions of a user on a network.Examples: It can be used to prove that an employee is not using the system as they should be. It can also be useful to understand how a problem happened. Firewall Configuration Every computer would have a safeguarding feature that is a known system for security. It will provide a network of security for both filtering income and outgoing network traffic. Its purpose is to reduce the number of unwanted network communications while allowing all legitimate communication to flow freely.Example: Hardware firewalls can be purchased as a stand-alone product but are typically found in broadband routers. Software firewalls are installed on your computer, like any software program, and you can customize it.Anti-MalwareAnti-malware is a type of software program that protects computers and IT systems against malware, including viruses and other harmful programs.Example: Anti-malware can be installed on individual computer devices, a gateway server or dedicated network appliance. Virtual Private Networks VPN is used to hide your IP (Internet Protocol) location or to make people believe you are in another location. A VPN is typically a paid service that keeps your web browsing secure and private over public Wi-Fi hotspots.Example: This is very useful for travellers and for those using public Wi-Fi networks, such as web users at hotels, airports, coffee shops. Intruder Detection Systems An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious activity that may indicate a network or system attack from someone. It then reports this suspicion to the system administrator. Example: This is used for burglar alarms like ADT which is used for notifying you of a break and hopefully scare the thieves from entering your house hold. Password Security Passwords are the most common way to prove your identity when using any websites, email accounts or your computer. The use of strong passwords is very important in order to protect your security and identity. Passwords are used along with your username. However, on secure sites they would also be used alongside other methods of identification such as a separate PIN or memorable information. In some cases you will also be asked to enter only certain characters of your password.Example: when you are using internet banking you have a choice to use memorable information for login.Data Access Levels Data access levels are a part of a control which can allow a system admin to set up a hierarchy of users because of this the user can access a limited amount of information. Whereas the highest user can access the most sensitive data on the system. Example: When on a computer some stuff might be password protected when another user is using the system. Software Updating A software updating can update any software to a more new version from your current existing version but it does not upgrade it to the next bigger version. Example: When you are downloading a service pack 1 on your Windows 7 you are actually updating it.