Background behaviors, needs and aspiration of men

 Background

SDGs stands for Sustainable Development Goals, known as
the Global Goals, are a universal to action to protect the planet, end poverty,
and ensure that all people enjoy prosperity and peace. There are 17 Goals
continuing the Millennium
Development Goals, while including new areas such as economic
inequality, climate change, innovation, sustainable consumption, justice and
peace, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – where the key to
success on one will involve solving the issues more commonly associated with
another.1

One of the goals, goal number 5, is Gender Equality.
Gender equality as we know is a state in which when men and women enjoy the
same opportunities and rights across all sectors of society, including decision
making and economic participation, and when the different behaviors, needs and
aspiration of men and women are equally valued and favored.2

But now, there have been a lot of improvements in women’s
right, and in gender equality since the last decades. As we know it, women were
not even allowed to work in any kind of jobs before. Women were only allowed to
work at home, cook, and ‘serve’ the family. But now, there are a lot of women
who work in the offices, and even sit in high positions such as managers, even
directors.

But there are not enough. Women are still discriminated.
They are still underrepresented in managerial positions. In the majority of the
67 countries with data from 2009 to 2015, less than a third of senior- and
middle-management positions were held by women.3

Women and girls in the world also go through things such
as violence solely based on their gender. Every human has the right to live in
peace and yet some women and girls still 
unable  to  achieve 
those  because  of 
the  violence  they 
keep  experiencing. Therefore,
gender equality is important, hence, needed. If women get the same chances and
accesses as men and vice versa, the advantages are not only for women, but for
the human race. And our country, Indonesia, has regulations and articles about
the matter. We can also interpret it from Pancasila, Indonesia’s foundation of
state, the five principles, and Indonesia’s 1945 constitution.

In this paper, writer will discuss why gender
inequality happened; how Indonesia’s constitution and Pancasila toward gender
equality, and how do we achieve it.

 

1.2       Problem Identification

In problem identification, the author will
describe the problems that will be discussed in the paper.

1.     
What is SDGS?

2.     
What is gender equality?

3.     
What are the targets and indicators of gender
equality of SDGS?

4.     
What are the Gender Inequality Factors and
How do Pancasila & Civic Education’s see it?

5.     
How is Indonesia’s progress on achieving
gender equality?

 

1.3         Problem Formulation

The problem formulation of this paper is,
“How to achieve gender equality from Pancasila and civic education’s point of
view?

 

 

CHAPTER
2
DISCUSSION

 

In this chapter, the author will discuss
about SDGs in general, gender equality in general, gender equality in SDGs,
acts that create gender inequality, how Pancasila and civic education sees
gender equality, and Indonesia’s progress on achieving gender equality itself.

2.1       SDGs

SDGs
stands for Sustainable Development Program, whereas it has 17 goals with 169
targets which scheduled to be achieved in 2030. The 17 targets are:

1.     
No Poverty

2.     
Zero Hunger

3.     
Good Health and Well-Being

4.     
Quality Education

5.     
Gender Equality

6.     
Clean Water and Sanitation

7.     
Affordable and Clean Energy

8.     
Decent Work and Economic Growth

9.     
Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure

10.  Reduced
Inequalities

11.  Sustainable
Cities and Communities

12.  Responsible
Consumption and Production

13.  Climate
Action

14.  Life
Below Water

15.  Life
on Land

16.  Peace,
Justice, and Strong Institutions

17.  Partnerships
for the Goals

 

The targets and goals will trigger action
over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for the planet and
humanity:

a.      People

End
poverty and hunger, ensure human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity
and equality with a healthy environment.

b.     
Planet

Protect
the planet from degradation, though sustainable consumption and production,
managing natural resources, taking actions on climate change.

c.      
Prosperity

Human
beings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives with economic, social
technological progress occurs in harmony with nature.

d.     
Peace

Foster
peaceful, free from fear and violence.

e.      
Partnership

Focusing
in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the
participation of all stakeholders, all countries and all people.4

 

Which
brings us to SDG number 5, gender equality.

 

2.2         Gender Equality

Gender equality is, as we know, a state in which access
to rights or opportunities is unaffected by gender. Gender equality is only
stated as achieved when men and women enjoy the same rights and opportunities
across all sectors of society, including decision making and economic
participation, and when the different behaviors, needs and aspirations of men
and women are equally valued and favoured.5
Normally, people
consider gender equality to be related only to women, since it is the gender
which usually discriminated against. Even though, men can face
gender equality issues as well. 6

While the world has achieved progress towards gender
equality and women’s empowerment under the Millennium Development Goals (including
equal access to primary education between girls and boys), women and girls
continue to suffer violence and discrimination in every part of the world.

Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right,
but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.

Providing girls and women with equal access to health
care, education, decent work, and representation in economic and political
decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies
and humanity at large.

 

2.3       Targets
and Indicators of Gender Equality in SDGs

There are many ways to achieve gender equality. One can
simply started by ourselves, as society. How society treats women and men, is
one of the main factors on why gender inequality is still a thing. But first we
have to know what are we trying to achieve and how do we know we have achieved
it? SDGs have these targets and indicators:

 

Here are the targets and indicators:

Targets

 

Indicators

To end all forms of discrimination against
all
women and girls everywhere

 

whether a legal framework exists or not to promote, enforce and monitor gender equality and non-discrimination

To
eliminate all forms of violence against all
women
and girls in the public and private
spheres,  including 
trafficking  and  sexual
and other types of exploitation

 

1.    
the proportion of ever-partnered girls and
women  aged  15 
years  and  older subjected  to  psychological,  sexual 
or physical violence by a current or 
former  intimate  partner 
in  the
previous  12 
months,  by  age and form of violence
2.    
 the
proportion of women and girls aged 15 
years  and  older 
subjected  to sexual  violence 
by  persons  other than 
an  intimate  partner 
in  the
previous 12 months, by  age 
and place
of occurrence

 

 

 

 

To
eliminate  all  harmful 
practices,  such  as child, early, and forced marriage and
female genital mutilation

1.      The
proportion  of  women 
aged  20-24 years  who 
were  married  or 
in  a union before age 15 and
before age 18
2.      The
proportion of girls and women aged 15-49 
years  who  have 
undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age

To
recognize  and  value 
unpaid  care  and
domestic  work 
through  the  provision 
of
public  services, 
infrastructure  and  social
protection  policies 
and  the  promotion 
of
shared
responsibility within the household
and
the family as nationally appropriate

1.      The
proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age, and
location

To
ensure   women’s   full  
and   effective
participation  and 
equal  opportunities  for
leadership
at all levels of decision-making
in political, economic and public life

1.      The
proportion of seats in national parliaments and local government that are
held by women
2.      The
proportion of women in managerial positions

To
ensure  universal  access 
to  sexual  and
reproductive
health and reproductive rights
as   agreed  
in   accordance   with  
the
Programme
of Action of the  International
Conference
on Population and Development
and
the Beijing Platform for Action and the
outcome   documents  
of   their   review
conferences

1.      The
proportion  of  women 
aged  15-49 years who make their
own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and  reproductive health car
2.      The
number of countries with laws and regulations 
that guarantee women aged 
15-49  years  access 
to sexual and    reproductive
health care, information and education

To
undertake  reforms  to 
give  women  equal rights 
to  economic  resources, 
as  well  as access to ownership and control over land
and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural
resources, in accordance with national laws

1.      The
proportion of the total agricultural population with the ownership or
security right of agricultural land, by sex; and division of women among
owners or stakeholders of agricultural land, by type of ownership.
2.      The
proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law)
guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control

To enchance the
use of technology that allows, especially information and communication
technology, to promote women empowerment

1.     
The proportion of individuals who own a
mobile telephone, by sex

To adopt 
and  strengthen  sound 
policies  and enforceable legislation for
the promotion of gender
equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

1.     
The proportion of countries with systems to create and track public
allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment.7

 

2.4       Gender
Inequality Factors and Pancasila & Civil Education’s POV

Now, many people still stick to traditional
ideas that men and women should behave in ways that fall into specific
categories determined solely on their gender. However, gender roles are social
constructs developed over time and are not based on natural human behavior.
This is happened because gender roles evolved as a way to organize the
necessary tasks done in early human society. These stereotypes can be harmful
because they motivate people to condemn and oppress those who do not fit the
traditional gender roles.8
Therefore, society needs to be the one who works to fix the issue that they
created. How do we find the solutions, is simply by looking at the problems.

2.4.1    Discrimination

First, a fundamental reason we have not yet achieved
gender equality in every realm is that women and girls’ voices are too often
excluded from global and national decision-making.9
Whereas, with a variety of opinions, then there will be many considerations.
Therefore, opportunities to get better decisions are greater.

Worldwide, many have produced regulations intended to
fight discrimination and programs granting women access to health, education,
and economic rights such as land ownership. Nonetheless, the fact remains that
women with lower participation in the labor force, have fewer opportunities
than men to benefit from economic development.10
All because of their gender.

How do we know who is capable of which if we never give
them the opportunity in the first place? Women could’ve been had more ideas and
ways that men may have never thought of, and yet, they got no chance to prove
it.

The average amount of time spent on unpaid domestic and
care work is more than threefold higher for women than men, according to survey
data from 83 countries and areas. Available data shows that time spent on
domestic chores accounts for a large proportion of the gender gap in unpaid
work.

Globally, women’s participation in single or lower houses
of national parliaments reached 23.4 per cent in 2017, just 10 percentage
points higher than in 2000. Such slow progress suggests that stronger political
commitment and more ambitious measures and quotas are needed to boost women’s
political participation and empowerment.

As it said on Indonesia’s principle, Pancasila, we can
see it from all five of the principles. In this case, the fifth principle has a
big role.

“Keadilan sosial
bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.”

In which translates to, social justice for all Indone
sian citizens. Every person, every citizen, has the same rights and obligations
in the country. Therefore, women should be heard the same as they have the
equal volume of voice as men.

UUD 1945 also has a few clauses about equality. One of
them is clause 28 I, verse 2, which reads:

“Setiap orang berhak bebas dari perlakuan yang bersifat
distriminatif atas dasar apapun dan berhak mendapatkan perlindungan terhadap
perlakuan yang bersifat diskriminatif itu.”

Whereas it translates to every person shall be entitled
to be free from discriminatory treatment on any basis and entitled to
protection against such discriminatory treatment. In this sentence,
discriminatory are consists of lots of aspects, such as tribe, religion, race,
intergroup, and in this case, gender. Women should not get discriminated by
their gender, something they did not choose. The same goes to men. Just because
they are men, does not mean they have to do the entire heavy work etc.

An example of gender
discrimination would be if a woman was denied a job, or was
paid less than a man would be paid, or received a lesser compensation and benefits package
solely on the basis of her being female.

This point is also supported by Indonesia’s constitution
no. 7 year 1984 and its attachments, whereas it said that Indonesian government
has the obligations to promotes, fulfills, and also protects women’s rights in
various aspects of life as individual and as citizens. Therefore, the country
is obliged to make every effort to give protection, pledge, and fulfillment of
rights to live safely, equal, and fair for their citizens, especially for women
whom still experiencing injustice and gender inequality in various aspects of
life, mainly in rural areas.11

2.4.2       
Violence against Women

Besides discrimination, women also experience violence.
Whether it is at home, on the streets or during war, violence against girls and
women is a human rights violation of pandemic proportions that takes place in
public and private spaces. Violence against women and girls manifests itself in
physical, sexual, and psychological forms. The United Nation, has some data
about the matter. They said there are around five forms of manifests.

First, there is an Intimate Partner Violence , in which
it means any behavior by a current or former partner or spouse that causes
physical, sexual, or psychological harm. Even in worldwide, 1 in 3 women have
experienced sexual and physical violence, mostly by an intimate partner. And, 1 in
2 women killed were killed by their partners or family in 2012 whereas only 1
out of 20 men were killed in such circumstances.12

Laws must protect women. Worldwide, two-thirds of
countries have outlawed domestic violence.13
Indonesia itself has article or clause that regulates domestic violence.
Indonesia’s constitution number 23 (2004) said that domestic violence is any
kind of action to someone, especially women, that resulting in misery or
suffering physically, sexually, psychologically, and/or neglect on household
including threat to do acts, coercions, or deprivation of liberty unlawfully
within the scope of the household. The clause regulates:

 

1.     
Definition of domestic violence

2.     
Who is included in the household scope

3.     
Forms of domestic violence

4.     
Definition of physical violence

5.     
Definition of psychological violence

6.     
Definition of sexual violence

7.     
Definition of neglect on household

8.     
Victim’s rights

9.     
Government’s obligations

10.   
Community obligations

11.   
The criminal provisions of the offender

12.  Case
verification14

 

Second, Sexual Violence
& Harassment.  Sexual violence is any
sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or
advances against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless
of their relationship to the victim, in any setting. Sexual violent acts can
take place in different circumstances and settings, including unwanted n sexual
advances, rape, sexual abuse of children, and forced marriage.

The third one is Human Trafficking. Human Trafficking is
the acquisition and exploitation of people, through means, such as force, fraud
or deception. The practice ensnares millions of women and girls into modern-day
slavery, many of whom are sexually exploited.

Forth, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). FGM includes
procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital
organs for non-medical reasons. Beyond extreme physical and psychological pain,
the practice carries many health risks, including death. The majority of girls
were cut before the age of 5.15

Regulation of the minister of health of the republic of
Indonesia no. 6 year 2014 which explains how the previous regulations about how
FGM is allowed has been revoked and declared invalid. It also tells Assembly of
Health Considerations and Syara’k to publish guidelines for the implementation
of female circumcision ensure the safety and health of women who are
circumcised and do not do female genital mutilation.

At least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone
FGM in 30 countries as it said on the representative data that’s available.

And last but not least, Child Marriage. Almost 750
million women and girls alive today were married before their 18th
birthday. Whilst 4 in 10 girls in West and Central Africa were married before
age 18 and about 1 in 7 were married or in union before age 15.

Indonesia’s constitution, article 7, the first passage,
said that: 

“Perkawinan hanya
diizinkan bila pihak pria mencapai umur 19 (sembilan belas) tahun dan pihak
wanita sudah mencapai usia 16 (enambelas) tahun.”

In which it translates to, Marriages are only allowed if
only the man reached the age of 19 (nineteen), and the woman has reached the
age of 16 (sixteen). Child marriage usually means an end to girl’s education,
vocation, and her right to make life choices.
Research confirms
that girls who marry in childhood are at greater risk of violent sexual
partners than girls of the same age married later.

 

There
is also article 6, second passage, which sounds:

“Untuk melangsungkan perkawinan seorang yang
belum mencapai umur 21 (dua puluh satu)tahun harus mendapat izin kedua orang
tua.”

In which it translates to, To marry someone who is not
yet reached the age of 21 (twenty one), there must be parental consent. This
point could be a problem because in this case, there is a chance the marriage
was only the parent consent, not the child, the one who is going to marry. Many
girls were forced to marry for their parents’ will.

In many communities
where child marriages are practiced, girls are not valued as a burden to their
families. Marrying your daughter at a young age can be seen as a way to reduce
economic hardship by transferring this ‘burden’ to her husband’s family.16

Child marriage is also driven by patriarchal values and
the desire to control female sexuality, for instance, how a girl should behave,
how she should dress, who she should be allowed to see, to marry, etc.
Families keep and protecting their girls’ sexuality and
virginity to guard family honor.
Girls who have a
relationship or become pregnant out of wedlock are shamed for bringing an insult
to their family.

Many parents marry
their young daughters because they feel it is in their best interest, often to
ensure safety in areas where girls are at high risk of harassing and physical
or sexual abuse..17

 

2.5            
Indonesia’s
Progress on Gender Equality

With all of these discrimination and violence against
women keep happening, even after Indonesian government released regulations
about the matter, the latest Human Development Index (HDI) report released by
the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) says Indonesia is still
struggling to close its gender equality gap.

The UNDP data shows a wide gap between Indonesian women
and men in terms of gross national income per capita, which is 6.668 and 13.391
respectively. Only 50.9 percent of women participate in the labor force,
compared to 83.9 percent of men.

Still, Christian Bahuet, UNDP Indonesia Country Director,
noted that Indonesia’s progress in terms of policies to push for women’s
empowerment had been good, including those that facilitated better access for
women to credit, which could encourage women to run businesses, generate income
and empower themselves in society.18

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3
CONCLUSION

 

3.1       Conclusion

In
conclusion, gender inequality still exists, discrimination and violence based
solely on anyone’s gender is also still happening. Discrimination often can be
found in offices, parliaments, etc. There has been improvement throughout the
ages, on how women now are having more accesses, and more decent jobs.
Indonesia itself already have some regulations to control about the matter, on
how every citizen deserved to be treated the same and have the same rights as
well as obligations. There is also an article from the constitution on how
every citizen deserves the right to be free from discrimination. Whilst for violence
against women, even though there are many forms of it, Indonesia’s has
regulations about each of it as well. Example, there’s a regulation that
controls on minimum ages of marrying to avoid child marriage. Despite the
apparent effort to achieve gender equality, there are still things that cause
gender inequality to be found and gender equality has yet to achieve.

3.2       Advice

With
all the efforts the government has given to achieve gender equality, it is only
fair if we, as citizen, as society, to do something about it as well. We could
start by, not disrespecting women nor men, stop discriminating anyone solely
based on their gender, and also, never think violence as a way to solve a
problem nor personal satisfaction.