Abstract encapsulate food ingredients. Microcapsules were produced

Abstract Propolis is a
product from the honeybee from plants, particularly from flowers and leaf buds. Propolis
exerts numerous pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial,
anticancer, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antiviral etc. In the
food industry, the use of microencapsulation to protect, isolate or control the
release of given substances is of growing interest. Spray drying is one of many
standard methods to encapsulate food ingredients. Microcapsules
were produced by a spray-drying technique using of k–carrageenan gum arabic and
maltodextrin as the binding materials. In this work, the effects of
spray-drying on the encapsulation yield, particle size and total phenolic
content of the bioactive components of propolis were determined for
different concentration between carrier agent and propolis at volume ratio 1:0,5
1:1, 1:1,5,1.
The SEM results also showed that the microcapsules
had a regular spherical shape with the size 1 µm. The spray-dried propolis  extract
showed high total phenolic content 67,78 mg(GAE)/g extract at ratio 1:2, and
the highest yield at concentration ratio between carrier agent and propolis 1:0,5  are 64,7 %.




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There has been an increased interest in dried extracts based on natural
products including propolis. 1. Propolis is
a resin with variable colour and consistency, and it is collected by bees from
different parts of plants, such as flower buds and resin exudates Propolis
presents a strong and characteristic smell due to its volatile phenolic acid
fraction, strong adhesive properties and complex chemistry (55% of resins and
balsams, 30% of wax, 10% of volatile oils and around 5% of pollen), as well as
mechanical impurities 2Dhyeta1 . The process allowed
obtaining propolis in the powder form with preserved antioxidant activity. Powder product
also increased stability during storage
at room temperature, had low hygroscopicity and was highly dispersible in cold

Drying process plays an important role in the preservation
of agricultural drying also for better preservation, easier handling, and a
reduced bulk volume for transportation 3. The spray-drying process is used in
the food industry to produce dry powders, The preparation of instant food
powders, such as milk, juices and coffee, needs a further step of agglomeration
after spray drying. Spray drying operation is used to get larger particles
(from 50–80 µm to250–500 µm) with a narrower size

 distribution in
order to improve flow ability; and to modify particle structure (porosity) to
btain good instant properties (wettability,dispersability and solubility) In
microencapsulation by spray drying, a target compound is combined with one or
more ‘wall’ materials to form an emulsion or dispersion4.

Spray drying are methods for encapsulating food
ingredients such as vitamins, flavours, starter cultures carotenoids, fats and
oils 5. Encapsulation may be defined
as a process to entrap one substance within another Substance 1. It can be  successfully applied to entrap natural
compounds, like essential oils or vegetalable extracts containing antioxidant polyphenols
6. Microencapsulation is technique for preserving and facilitating the use of
sensitive ingredients. In microencapsulation a core material is surrounded or
embedded in a protective layer of differing composition. Basically  a liquid is transformed into a powder in the
microencapsulation process microencapsulation can mask undesirable flavors or
odors, control the release rate and location of a compound, and impact bioavailability
of the encapsulated material. Microcapsules can have a variety of structural
types – core shell, multi core, single wall, multi wall, continuous matrix. The
structural type depends on the processing method and materials involved in

In this research we used maltodextrin, gum arabic and
carragenan as wall material for encapsulated propolis


Material and methods




Bottled samples Glasses Beker, Glomax, Homogenizer
Ultra turrax, Analytic, Mini spray dryer butchi, micro pipette (Rainin),
microplate, Oven, 2ml cup sample, spatula, yellow tip. The materials used are Aquades,
Ethanol 96%, Gum Arab, Kappa Carrageenan, Maltodextrin, and Propolis. The
microencapsulation method used is spray drying. The microcapsule formulation
consists of Propolis Solution, Maltodextrin, Gum Arab, and Carrageenan. Stages
of research conducted is the determination of the yield of propolis.



Preparation and spray drying


The coating material
maltodextrin  and Arabic gum were prepared as described by 7,8 with modification.  Making emulsion,
microencapsulation process and microcapsule analysis. Determination The
propolis rendement was carried out by
drying propolis in an oven at 90 ° C until only the remaining propolis solids and then weighed a coating matrix
comprising 1 g of maltodextrin, 1 g of Carrageenan and 0.2 gr Gum Arabic mixed
with 200 ml aquades using and then  Homogenizer using Ultra Turrax. With Stirring speed are 16000 rpm for 2 minutes. Propolis
solution is made by mixing pure propolis with ethanol with a ratio 1: 4. The
propolis solution was mixed on an emulsion of 30 ml, 60 ml, 90 ml, and 120 ml
volumes using Homogenizer Ultra Turrax with stirring speed of 16000 rpm for 2
min. The emulsion then enter spray
dryer. The sample is inserted into a glass beaker. The operating conditions of
the equipment are 20% pump pressure, nitrogen gas pressure  temperature 150oC.


Total Phenolic
Content (TPC)


Total phenolics
(TPC) of the samples were determined spectrophotometrically by the
Folin-Ciocalteu reagent according to the method of 9.


Results and Discussion


Kappa carrageenan is known to be a good choice as a coating material
because of its pseudoplastic behaviour so it is possible to act as a plasticizer, made the
micro encapsulate round and smooth formation at the microencapsulation and
increase the adhesion force between walls and core materials. In addition,
kappa carrageenan has the desired properties as emulsifier, safe to eat and
biodegradation 10 Also gum arab added in emulsion because its high
solubility, the main characteristic of gum arab is is a texture-forming,
film-forming, fastener and emulsifier which is good with the presence of
protein components in gum arab. Gum arab can retain flavor from dried foods by
method spray drying, because this gum can form a protective layer of the
process of decomposition change 11. Even so gum arab has weaknesses the price is quite expensive and limited
availability as well its oxidation resistance is low.  Usually the use of
gum arab mixed with dextrin such as maltodextrin. Maltodextrin (C6H12O5) n
H2O is defined as a starch hydrolyzate product (an unsanitary
saccharide polymer) with an average chain length of 5-10 units / glucose
molecule. maltodextrin is composed of glucose units, and is not effective for
stabilizing oil or flavor in solution viscosity. Therefore, maltodextrin is usually
combined with the ingredients such as gum arab or other modified starch for
stability purposes 12.             Gum arab emulsions can produce micro capsules that have high retention but low oxidation
resistance. Therefore the use of gum arab can combined with maltodextrins that
have high oxidation
resistance Maltodextrin has good solubility in water and low
viscosity values even at high concentrations. These properties make
maltodextrin useful for coating material. On the other hand, maltodextrins are
deficient in terms of emulsification property and surface-active features13 the addition of carrier agent material in the microencapsulation process leads to an
increase in total propolis solids prior to microencapsulation. The total
content of solids affects the duration of the drying process and the resulting


Tabel 1. Viscosity of


Volume propolis in
total volume of emulsion (ml)

Viscosity of emulsion (cp)Dhyeta2 










Tabel 1. Can
be have seen that volume of
propolis affected in viscosity of emulsion microenkapsulat with maltodextrin as carrier agent combined with kappa carrageenan can increase the
rendement of micro encapsulation powder due to high molecular weight of carrageenan that is
above 100 kDa or ranged between 100-800 thousand kDa 14,10 and the nature of kappa karagenan which is the fraction
capable of forming  gel in water and
increasing the viscosity of the solution, so that the total dissolved solids become increased
which results in a higher yield compared to the ratio of other coating
combinations therefore required viscosity test. In addition, viscosity testing
of the emulsion is important because the spray dryer used has a specification
of emulsion viscosity should be carried 122 cp.

The excessively
high viscosity of the solution can cause damage to the nozzle and complicate
the process of the atomizer so that it can become unstable in the flow within
the spray drying resulting in many microencapsulated powders attached to the
chamber spray dryer tube. Yield of the spray drying process, which is defined as
the ratio of powder mass collected to the mass of total solids in the feed,19
is an important indicator for industrial success. Residue formation during
spray drying indicates poor process performance and is mainly caused by
stickiness of the product a yield value higher than 50% as a successful drying
process 15,  from Table 2Dhyeta4  we could have seen that higher
viskosity will increased the yield of microcapsul due to higher carrier agent
concentration that effected the increased viscosity but also in 10 yield increased along with the addition of coating materials with various ratios combination, from Figure 2  we could have seen
sampel  with  ratio propolis and carrier agent 2:1 much
more agglomerated also supported with figure 3 Scanning electron of particles than other variation due to the
yield of spray drying less then 50% if the yield than 50% caused stickness to
the product from Tabel 1 we could seen the  yield
lessDhyeta5  than 50 %.





 Dhyeta1This introduction is mainly about spray drying, change to propolis

 Dhyeta2what viscocity ?

 Dhyeta3in total volume ?

 Dhyeta4Table 2.