Abstract-Automatic also use Arduino UNO microcontroller. By

Abstract-Automatic
floor cleaner is an automated machine that facilitates the user to keep their
place clean and hygienic. Many industries are working in the automation field
autonomous cleaners.   This paper deals with the development of
automatic floor cleaner. Now a day’s major emphasis is given on the field of
robotics for decreasing human efforts. Our aim is to construct a floor cleaner
which will be fully automatic providing dry and wet cleaning as well as UV sterilization.
The current market is occupied by cleaners with only one or two functionality.
For its cost reduction and simplicity, we are using Arduino. The cleaner will
be a step for providing comfortable life by resolving problems in traditional
floor cleaning methods which includes orthopedic issues.

                 INTRODUCTION

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For cleaning the houses, offices, streets,
industries we mostly use the broom. But by using broom some health issue can
occur like skin disease, back pain etc. It also requires more mankind power and
time. Hence now in present days as technology is growing in every field, we
also use robots for cleaning purpose. But cleaning robots are very costly and
only some of them give facility of dry cleaning as well as wet cleaning. In India
for houses cleaning robots are not used because a normal person cannot afford
it due to high cost. In India, robots are used for street cleaning, railway
station and airport cleaning which are controlled manually. In this paper, we
are designing a fully automatic floor cleaner. which is capable of wet cleaning
as well as dry cleaning. In this, we also use UV lamp for germ sterilization by
which we can avoid acid or other hazardous liquid. For mapping of room, we use
different technology. But here we use IR sensor for edge detection and obstacle
detection. In this project we also use Arduino UNO microcontroller. By this
project, we tried to reduce the cost of mopping robot as compare with other
mopping robots.

 

               

             LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Initially, floor cleaning is done by using
hands or different handmade instruments. Such kind of cleaning requires a lot
of humans affords. As the dependency of human on technology increases more and
more products are launched for making human life easy. When electricity came
into a role the concept of vacuum cleaner is introduced. Vacuum cleaners are
constructed to clean any dry surface, this type of cleaning required very less application
of muscle power. Then the concept of mobile robots is introduced. They are
programmed in such a manner that they can move around in their environment.
Currently, the market is occupied by various companies which are manufacturing
such variety of robots. These floor cleaners are distinguished on the bases of
their cleaning action such as dry cleaning or wet cleaning. Some of the major
companies working in the field of automatic floor cleaners are Dyson, iRobot, Neato
Robotics.

      

The problem occurring with the current
floor cleaners is that they are used in households for wet or dry cleaning but
they are not suitable for infection remover. 

 

                    DEVELOPMENT

Components:

Arduino  UNO

fig. 
Arduino-UNO board

 

The Arduino Uno is a
microcontroller board which has ATmega328 from the AVR family. There are 14
digital input/output pins, 6 Analog pins, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, USB
connection, power jack, and also has a reset button. Its software supported by
a number of libraries that makes the programming easier.

 

 

Ultrasonic
Sensor:

 This sensor is used to measure the
distance. It transmits ultrasonic waves and receives the reflected waves and
measures the distance to the target by computing the time between the emission
and reception. It has 4 pins TRIG, ECHO, GND & VCC. It emits the ultrasonic
waves through the trig pin and receives the waves through echo pin when the
waves get reflected back from the target.

For measuring the distance :

Distance= ½(speed of sound * time taken)

fig. 
ULTRASONIC SENSOR

 

 

IR
Sensor:

 IR sensors
are used for object detection, edge detection etc. It has IR emitter LED for
emission and an IR Photodiode for detection. It works on the principle that
when there is any object then the waves reflects back and hence the object is
detected by it.

 

fig. IR SENSOR

 

 

DC
MOTOR:

A simple DC motor is used for the motion
of the machine. It converts the electrical energy to the mechanical energy and
is connected with the wheels of the cleaner to move it in all directions. Other
motors are stepper motor, servo etc. DC motors are available as brushed as well
as brushless.

              fig . DC MOTOR

 

 

MOTOR
DRIVER:

L293D is a Motor Driver IC which is used
to connect the motor with the microcontroller and provide them sufficient
voltage supply. L293D has 16-pins in which 4 are input pins, 4 are output pins,
2 are enable pin, 4 GND pins and 2 pins for power supply. It is used to control
two DC motors simultaneously to rotate in any direction. It works according to
the concept of H-bridge. The voltage has to change its direction to rotate the
motor in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. We can’t connect the motors
directly to the microcontroller as it will only provide 5V which is not
sufficient to run the motors, so we have to use motor driver IC L293D.

 

 

 

      
fig. MOTOR DRIVER L293D

 

 

UV
LAMP:

It is the invisible light that is present
on the outer side of violet rays in the spectrum. Thus called ultraviolet
light. It has wavelength between 100nm and 400nm. UV rays are efficient in
killing the germs and thus this UV lamp can be used for the sterilization
action.

 

 

                                             
         fig: UV LAMP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Design:

 

                           fig: Block Diagram

 

Working:  

            Automatic floor cleaner is an
autonomous robotic machine that helps the user in cleaning their places. Arduino
microcontroller is used for the processing and connection of different
components like sensors, motors, another IC (L293D) etc. It uses IR sensor and
ultrasonic sensors for the detection of objects and distance and the Arduino
gives the signals to the motors to take turn according to the position. For
sweeping, it makes the use of brushes and vacuum pump and provides wet cleaning
via the combination of water sprinkler and roller. At last, it also kills the
germs of the floor via UV lamp present at the tail end of the machine.

 

                  

                 fig: Flow Chart

 

                   CONCLUSION

This paper
facilitates efficient and economical floor cleaning. The cleaner can perform
three actions that are dry cleaning, wet cleaning, & UV sterilization.  This research shows a better & simple
construction. With the help of UV Lamp, it is possible to kill more than 90% of
germicides. This feature increases its application area in hospitals as well as
industries.